Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 44, Issue 10, pp 2533–2540 | Cite as

Production of opaque frits with low ZrO2 and ZnO contents and their industrial uses for fast single-fired wall tile glazes

  • K. PekkanEmail author
  • B. Karasu


The amounts of zirconium and zinc oxides, which raise the production costs of ceramic glazes, were decreased in fast single-fired wall tile frit compositions and an industrial frit production was conducted. Opacity of the fired frit-based glazes was accomplished by compositional modifications of frits with no other nucleating agent. It was determined that the ratios of Al2O3/ΣR2O, Al2O3/ΣRO, and Al2O3/B2O3 have significant effects on decreasing ZrO2 and ZnO levels in the frit composition. A reduction of 25% in both zirconia and zinc oxide contents of frit batches, with respect to the reference frit (R) containing 6–10% ZrO2 and 6–10% ZnO for a glossy white opaque wall tile glaze, was achieved in the ZD glaze consisting of 4.5–7.5% zirconia and 4.5–7.5% ZnO in its frit composition. It was concluded that zircon was the main crystalline phase of the glaze contributing the opacity. The ZD frit-based glaze has a thermal expansion coefficient value of 61.13 ± 0.32 × 10−7 °C−1 at 400 °C which well matches to that of the wall tile body. TS EN ISO 10545 standard tests were also applied to the final ZD glaze. It is confirmed that the production cost of a fast single-fired wall tile glaze can be decreased by 15–20% with the successful new frit developed.


Zinc Oxide Zircon Crystallization Wall Tile B2O3 Content Glazed Surface 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank Industrial PhD Programme of State Planning Organization of Turkiye (Project No: 2004K1 20270) and TUBITAK (Science, Technology and Research Association of Turkiye) Programme of Industrial Research and Development Projects (TEYDEB) for the support to the project numbered 3060236. Special thanks also go to the authorities and people of Kalefrit A. S. and Kaleseramik A. S. of Turkiye, facilitating the study to be conducted satisfactorily.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringAnadolu UniversityEskisehirTurkey
  2. 2.Kaleseramik, Canakkale Kalebodur Seramik Sanayi A. SCanTurkey

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