Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 44, Issue 8, pp 2143–2151 | Cite as

Studies of surface-modified wood flour/polypropylene composites

  • Yongcheng Zhang
  • Hossein Toghiani
  • Jilei Zhang
  • Yibin Xue
  • Charles U. PittmanJr.Email author


Wood flour (WF)/polypropylene (PP) composites have been made by extrusion and hot press compression molding. The composite water uptake and flexural properties were investigated. The composite fracture surfaces were studied by SEM. WF esterified with octanoyl chloride was used in WF/PP composites to improve the composites’ water resistance. Maleated polypropylene (MAPP) was also studied and compared with esterification by acid chlorides. Esterification by octanoyl chloride reduced the composite water uptake. However, the C8 chain is still not long enough to form effective entanglements with the PP matrix. So, despite enhancements in hydrophobic interactions, flexural strengths and flexural moduli decreased. MAPP (MW = 47000) polymer chains can entangle with the matrix polypropylene molecules. Therefore, when MAPP’s maleic anhydride functions esterify WF surface hydroxyls, improved water resistance and composite flexural properties were achieved. The modifier chain length is of critical importance and more important than the surface density of hydrophobic groups for improving WF–PP interfacial adhesion and composite mechanical performance.


Flexural Strength Water Immersion Wood Flour Flexural Modulus Octanoyl 



This work was funded by Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems of Mississippi State University (“Hybrid composites for a hybrid car” project). This work was also partly supported by the Forest Products Laboratory at Mississippi State University. The SEM characterization was supported by MCL Follow-up Funding from Mississippi State University. The authors thank Mr. Dustin Black for performing water absorption and third-point bending measurements. The authors also thank Ms. Amanda M. Lawrence for her help in SEM characterization.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yongcheng Zhang
    • 1
  • Hossein Toghiani
    • 2
  • Jilei Zhang
    • 3
  • Yibin Xue
    • 4
    • 5
  • Charles U. PittmanJr.
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryMississippi State University Mississippi StateUSA
  2. 2.Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical EngineeringMississippi State University Mississippi StateUSA
  3. 3.Department of Forest ProductsMississippi State UniversityMississippi State USA
  4. 4.Center for Advanced Vehicular SystemsMississippi State University Mississippi StateUSA
  5. 5.Department of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringUtah State UniversityLoganUSA

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