Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 44, Issue 8, pp 2079–2088 | Cite as

XPS and FT-IR investigation of silicate polymers

  • Morten E. Simonsen
  • Camilla Sønderby
  • Zheshen Li
  • Erik G. SøgaardEmail author


This article presents the results of an investigation of the compositional and structural features of an inorganic polymer synthesized from amorphous silica and KOH. The inorganic polymers were characterized using Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FT-IR investigation of the inorganic polymers showed that an increase in the hydroxide concentration used in the synthesis shifts the position of the maximum absorbance of Si–O bands toward lower wave numbers, indicating the transformation of Q4 units to Q3 and Q2 units. XPS investigation of the inorganic polymers showed that the total amount of oxygen and potassium present in the sample increased when higher concentrations of hydroxide were used in the synthesis. The O/Si ratio of the inorganic polymers changed from 2 to 2.6 when the KOH concentration was increased from 0.75 to 4 M. The increase in the O/Si ratio can be explained by the greater dissolution of SiO2 particles leading to the formation of branched polymers and gelation.


Inorganic Polymer Lower Wave Number Hydroxide Concentration Continuous Random Network Electro Spray Ionization Mass Spectroscopy 


  1. 1.
    Komnitas K, Zahataki D (2007) Miner Eng 20:1261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Duxson P, Fernández-Jiménez A, Provis J, Lukey G, Palomo A, Van Deventer J (2007) J Mater Sci 42:2917. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Simonsen ME, Sønderby C, Søgaard EG (2009) J Sol-Gel Sci Technol. doi: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Caullet P, Guth J (1989) ACS Symp Ser 398:83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Henry M, Jolivet J, Livage J (1992) J Struct Bond 77:153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Karlsson C, Zanghellini E, Swenson J, Roling B, Bowron DT, Börjesson L (2005) Phys Rev B 72:064206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Black L, Garbev K, Stemmermann P, Hallam KR, Allen GC (2003) Cem Concr Res 33:899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Black L, Stumm A, Garbev K, Stemmermann P, Hallam KR, Allen GC (2003) Cem Concr Res 33:1561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mollah MYA, Hess TR, Tsai Y-N (1993) Cem Concr Res 23:773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ménétrier D, Jawed I, Sun TS, Skalny J (1979) Cem Concr Res 9:473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Regourd M, Thomassin JH, Baillif P, Touray JC (1983) Cem Concr Res 13:549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Miyaji F, Iwai M, Kokubo T, Nakamura T (1998) J Mater Sci Mater Med 9:61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rees CA, Provis JL, Lukey GC, Van Deventer JSJ (2007) Langmuir 23:8179Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rees CA, Provis JL, Lukey GC, Van Deventer JSJ (2007) Langmuir 23:9076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
    Innocenzi P (2003) J Non-Cryst Solids 316:309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zholobenko VL, Holmes SM, Cundy CS, Dwyer J (1997) Microporous Mater 11:83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Serra J, González P, Liste S, Chiussi S, León B, Pérez-Amor M, Ylänen HO, Hupa M (2002) J Mater Sci Mater Med 13:1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pleul D, Frenzel R, Eschner M, Simon F (2003) Anal Bioanal Chem 1276Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Paparazzo E, Fanfoni M, Severini E, Priori S (1992) J Vacum Sci Technol A 10(4):2892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Paparazzo E (1996) Surf Interface Anal 24:729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yu J-G, Yu H-G, Cheng B, Zhao X-J, Yu J, Ho W-K (2003) J Phys Chem B 107:13871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Langmuir D (1997) Aqueous environmental geochemistry. Prentice-Hall Inc., LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brinker C, Scherer G (1990) Sol-gel science. The physics and chemistry of sol-gel processing. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wagner CD, Riggs WM, Davis LE, Moulder JF, Mullenberg GE (1979) Handbook of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Perkin Elmer Corp., Eden Prairie, USAGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Holleman AF, Wiberg E (1995) Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie. Walter de Gruyter, BerlinGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Morten E. Simonsen
    • 1
  • Camilla Sønderby
    • 1
  • Zheshen Li
    • 2
  • Erik G. Søgaard
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Aalborg UniversityAalborgDenmark
  2. 2.Institute for Storage Ring FacilitiesÅrhusDenmark

Personalised recommendations