Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 869–874 | Cite as

Solid–liquid structural break-up in M2 tool steel for semi-solid metal processing

  • M. Z. OmarEmail author
  • H. V. Atkinson
  • A. A. Howe
  • E. J. Palmiere
  • P. Kapranos
  • M. J. Ghazali


The success of semi-solid metal processing mostly depends on the formation of suitable starting microstructure, which must consist of solid metal spheroids in a liquid matrix. Various methods of obtaining this structure have been established; they include recrystallisation and partial melting (RAP), strain-induced melt-activated (SIMA), or simple mechanical stirring, to name a few. These methods, as widely discussed, have mostly been applied with light alloys, mainly aluminium based. This article discusses solid–liquid structural break-up in M2 tool steel subjected to a direct re-melting procedure from the as-annealed condition. The role of carbide dissolution in the grain boundary liquation of the steel is described. This leads to the production of near spheroidal solid grains in a liquid matrix, a microstructure suitable for the thixoforming process. Microstructural examination revealed that carbide particles contained in bands at 1220 °C slowly disappeared with temperature. At 1300 °C, the solid grains seemed to be free from carbides. Most of the carbides had now re-precipitated at the grain boundaries. Thixoforming carried out at 1340 and 1360 °C revealed the thixotropic properties of the semi-solid metal slurries. The results indicate a widening of the range of potential routes to thixoformable microstructures.


Carbide Tool Steel Carbide Particle Liquid Matrix Semisolid State 



The authors wish to thank Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (a.k.a National University of Malaysia), Malaysia, for financial assistance, and the University of Sheffield, UK, for the provision of laboratory facilities.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Z. Omar
    • 1
    Email author
  • H. V. Atkinson
    • 2
  • A. A. Howe
    • 3
  • E. J. Palmiere
    • 3
  • P. Kapranos
    • 3
  • M. J. Ghazali
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Materials EngineeringNational University of MalaysiaBangi, SelangorMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of EngineeringUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterUK
  3. 3.Department of Engineering MaterialsThe University of SheffieldSheffieldUK

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