Cathodic electrophoretic deposition of barium titanate films from aqueous solution
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Cathodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of barium titanate from aqueous suspensions was performed on nickel substrate. Cathodic deposition allows preparation of thin layers from aqueous solution on base metal electrodes, such as Ni or Cu, without creating an intermediate oxide layer during the deposition. This opens the opportunity to prepare complex shapes of dielectric layers onto base metals for co-firing, using relatively cheap and environmentally benign aqueous EPD. Stable barium titanate colloidal suspension with a concentration of 10 g/100 mL at pH of 9.2 has been prepared for the deposition. The characteristics of electrophoretic deposition of those positively charged particles onto cathode were investigated. A uniform and dense layer was obtained for films deposited at 3 V for 2 min. The calculated film thickness for the sintered layer at these conditions was ∼1 μm. The morphology can be controlled, and in particular the pore size and distribution can be controlled via the applied voltage. At low voltage a uniform layer can be obtained whereas at high voltage a large number of macropores appears in the deposit and their size increase with the increasing of the voltage due to gas bubble formation.
We would like to thank Dr. Assaf Thon, and coworkers at former Cerel Ltd. for useful discussions and assistance. Partial funding from the Technion’s research promotion fund and from the Russell Berry Nanotechnology Institute are gratefully acknowledged. S.B. would like to acknowledge the support of The Center for Absorption in Science, Israeli Ministry of Immigrant Adsorption.