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Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 42, Issue 14, pp 5805–5814 | Cite as

DEPP functionally graded piezoceramics via micro-fabrication by co-extrusion

  • Paul W. Alexander
  • Diann BreiEmail author
  • John W. Halloran
Article

Abstract

This paper introduces the Dual Electro/Piezo Property (DEPP) gradient technique via Micro-Fabrication through Co-eXtrusion (MFCX) which pairs a high displacement lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoceramic with a high permittivity barium titanate (BT) dielectric. By grading with this material combination spatially across an actuator, the electric field is concentrated in the more active region for improved efficiency, higher displacements, and complex motions. To aid in synthesis and analysis of any gradient profile, compositional maps are provided for key material properties (density, stiffness, permittivity, and piezoelectric coefficients). The DEPP technique was validated, independent of the MFCX process, by powder pressing a conventional bimodal gradient beam which demonstrated through experiments high displacement capabilities at lower driving potentials than comparable functionally graded piezoceramic actuators. For more complex gradients, the MFCX process was adapted to the DEPP gradient technique and illustrated by the fabrication of a linearly graded prototype whose monolithic nature and gradual material variation significantly reduces internal stresses, improves reliability, and extends service lifetime.

Keywords

Barium Titanate Piezoelectric Coefficient Material Gradient Gradient Profile Barium Titanate 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was made possible through a grant from the National Science Foundation (Grant #: CMS 0201031).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul W. Alexander
    • 1
  • Diann Brei
    • 1
    Email author
  • John W. Halloran
    • 2
  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Materials Science and Engineering DepartmentUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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