Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 42, Issue 8, pp 2758–2765 | Cite as

Preparation and characterization of metalorganic chemical vapor deposited nickel oxide and lithium nickel oxide thin films

  • M. A. Eleruja
  • G. O. Egharevba
  • O. A. Abulude
  • O. O. Akinwunmi
  • C. Jeynes
  • E. O. B. AjayiEmail author


Thin films of nickel oxide and lithium nickel oxide were deposited through the pyrolysis of nickel acetylacetonate and lithium nickel acetylacetonate, respectively in the temperature range 350–420 °C. The single solid source precursors, nickel acetylacetonate and lithium nickel acetylacetonate were prepared and characterized using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy. The composition, optical and electrical properties of the prepared thin films were analysed using a variety of techniques, including, Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), EDXRF, XRD, UV–Visible Spectrophotometry and van der Pauw conductivity method. The amount of metals in the prepared thin films did not reflect the ratio of the metals in the precursor but was found to depend on the deposition temperature. The energy gaps of the nickel oxide and lithium nickel oxide thin films are 3.7 and 3.2 eV, respectively. The electrical conductivity showed that lithium nickel oxide thin film has an activation energy of 0.11 eV. The conduction was explained by a hopping mechanism.


Nickel Oxide Rutherford Backscatter Spectroscopy Rutherford Backscatter Spectroscopy Spectrum Soda Lime Glass Substrate Prepared Thin Film 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The RBS was carried out at the D. R. Chick Accelerator Laboratory, University of Surrey, so we thank the staff of the laboratory. We are grateful to the Third World Academy of Science (TWAS, Grant (93-058 R6/PHYS/AF/AC) Italy and Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (University Research Committee (URC) for supporting this project. EDXRF was done by Femi Ogunsola of Pollution Laboratory, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. XRD was carried out at EMDI Laboratories, Akure, Nigeria, so we are grateful to all staff of the Institute.


  1. 1.
    Nagai J, Morisaki S (2003) Solid State Ionics 165:149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cere Korosec R, Bukovec P (2004) Thermochim Acta 410:65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Stanescu S, Boeglin C, Barbier A, Deville J-P (2004) Surf Sci 549:172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Urbano A, de Castro SC, Landers R, Morais J, Sieervo AD, Gorenstein A, Tabacniks MH, Fantini MCA (2001) J Power Sources 97(98):328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wen S-J, von Rottkay K, Rubin M (1997) Proc Electrochem Soc PV 96(24):54Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eleruja MA (1998) Ph.D Thesis, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, (Unpublished)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sakata O, Yi MS, Matsuda A, Liu J, Sato S, Akiba S, Sasaki A, Yoshimoto M (2003) Appl Surf Sci 221:450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Avendano E, Azens A, Isidorsson J, Karmhag R, Niklasson GA, Granquist CG (2003) Solid State Ionics 165:169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ilori OO, Osasona O, Eleruja MA, Egharevba GO, Adegboyega GA, Chiodelli G, Boudreault G, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB (2005) Thin Solid Films 472:84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kwon CW, Hwang SJ, Delville MH, Labrugere C, Murugan AV, Kale, Vijayamohanan K, Campet G (2003) Active Passive Electron Components 26:23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Choy JH, Kim DH, Kwon CW, Hwang SJ, Kim YI (1999) J Power Sources 77:4316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mizushuma K, Jones PC, Wiseman PJ, Goodenough JB (1980) Mat Res Bull 15:783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Godshell NA, Raistrick ID, Huggins RA (1980) Mat Res Bull 15:561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shin W, Imai K, Izu N, Murayama N (2001) Jpn J Appl Phys 40:L1232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shin W, Murayama N (2000) Mater Lett 45:302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ajayi OB, Akanni MS, Lambi JN, Jeynes C, Watts JF (1990) Thin Solid Films 185:123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Adedeji AV, Egharevba GO, Jeynes C, Ajayi EOB (2002) Thin Solid Films 402:49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bott S, Fahlman BD, Pierson ML, Barron AR (2001) J Chem Soc Dalton Trans 2148Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Behrsing T, Bond AM, Deacon GB, Forsyth CM, Forsyth M, Kamble KJ, Skelton BW, White AH (2003) Inorg Chim Acta 352:229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Akinwunmi OO, Eleruja MA, Olowolafe JO, Adegboyega GA, Ajayi EOB (1999) Opt Mat 13:255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Charles RG, Pawliskowski MA (1958) J Phys Chem 62:440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ellern JB, Ragsdale RO (1968) Inorg Syn 11:87Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ajayi OB (1970) M.Sc. Thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana Illinois Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ajayi OB, AnaniAA, Obabueki AO (1981) Thin Solid Films 82:151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    van der Pauw LJ (1958) Philips Rep 15:1Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lawson KE (1961) Spectrochim Acta 17:248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jeynes C, Barradas NP, Marriott PK, Boudreault G, Jenkin M, Wendler E, Webb RP (2003) J Phys D 36:R97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bruce PG (1997) Chem Commun 1817Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bube RH (1974) Electronic properties of crystalline solids. Academic Press, London, p 417Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wang X, Song J, Gao L, Jin J, Zheng H, Zhang Z (2005) Nanotechnology 16:37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Galakhov R, Kurmaev EZ, Uhlenbrock St, Neumann M, Kellerman DG, Gorshkov VS (1995) Solid State Commun 95:347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kuiper P, Kruiziriga K, Ghijsen J, Sawatzky GA, Verweij H (1989) Phys Rev Lett 62:221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ali-Omar M (1975) Elementary solid state physics. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, p 275Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dutta G, Manthiram A, Goodenough JB, Grenier J-C (1992) J Solid State Chem 96:123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Heikes RR, Johnston WD (1957) J Chem Phys 26:582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Adler D, Feinleib J (1970) Phys Rev B 2:3112CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Eleruja
    • 1
  • G. O. Egharevba
    • 2
  • O. A. Abulude
    • 1
  • O. O. Akinwunmi
    • 1
  • C. Jeynes
    • 3
  • E. O. B. Ajayi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsObafemi Awolowo UniversityIle-IfeNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry Obafemi Awolowo UniversityIle-IfeNigeria
  3. 3.University of SurreyGuildford, SurreyUK

Personalised recommendations