Advertisement

Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 42, Issue 16, pp 6854–6861 | Cite as

Exploring the relationship between ferrite fraction and morphology and the electromagnetic properties of steel

  • W. Yin
  • A. J. Peyton
  • M. Strangwood
  • C. L. Davis
Article

Abstract

The link between the electromagnetic properties of steel and its microstructure is a complex one, depending on both phase fractions and morphology. In this paper, both analytical and three-dimensional finite element (3D FEM) modelling techniques were applied to the prediction of permeability for steel with a given ferrite fraction for random ferrite/austenite distributions. Experimental measurements from a multi-frequency electromagnetic sensor on samples generated by hot isostatic pressing (HIPping) of powder mixtures were used to evaluate the analytical and FEM predictions. Theoretical treatment of the relationship between the sensor output and the effective permeability is also given; in particular, it was found that the zero crossing frequency of the real part of the inductance is approximately linearly related to the permeability for high (> 40%) ferrite percentages. The EM sensor can therefore be used to identify the samples across the full range (0–100%) of ferrite percentages using both the zero crossing frequency (> 40%) and trans-impedance (0–40%). The effect of banded (non-random) microstructures on sensor output and the prediction of the upper and lower bounds of permeability are also discussed.

Keywords

Ferrite Relative Permeability Effective Permeability Sensor Output Finite Element Method Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to express their gratitude to EPSRC for their financial support and Corus (UK) Ltd. for financial support and extremely valuable technical input, the Engineering Department at Manchester University for the electronic test instrumentation and the Department of Metallurgy and Materials at the University of Birmingham for the provision of facilities.

References

  1. 1.
    http://www.matweb.com as on 15.11.06Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Davis CL, Papaelias MP, Strangwood M, Peyton AJ (2002) Ironmak Steelmak 29(6):469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Papaelias MP, Strangwood M, Peyton AJ, Davis CL (2004) Metallur Mater Trans A 35A:965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Haldane RJ, Yin W, Strangwood M, Peyton AJ, Davis CL (2006) Scripta Mat 54(10):1761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Maxwell JC (1873) In: Treatise on electricity and magnetism. Oxford Univ. Press, UKGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Matijevic E (1971) Surface and colloid science, in dielectric properties of disperse systems, vol 3. Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp 83Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sherman P (1968) Emulsion science, in electrical properties of emulsions. London, U.K., Academic, pp 353Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pavlin M, Slivnik T, Miklavcic D (2002) IEEE Trans Bio Med Eng 49:77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pellegrini YP (2000) Phys Rev B 61:9365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Birchak JR, Gardner LG, Hipp JW, Victor JM (1974) In: Proceedings of the IEEE 62:93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Looyenga H (1965) Physica 21:410Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dodd CV, Deeds WE (1968) J Appl Phys 39:2829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yin W, Binns R, Davis CL, Peyton AJ, Dickinson SJ (2002) In: Proceedings of the IEEE instrumentation and measurement technology Conference, Ottawa, Canada, May 2005, ISBN 0-7803-8880-1Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lorrain P, Corson D (1988) Electromagnetic fields and waves. Freeman, New York, pp 347Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Maxwell user manual, Ansoft Corporation, 2001Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stainless Steels (1994) In: Davis JR (ed) ASM speciality handbook, pub. ASM International, ISBN 0-87170-503-6Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Marcu Puscas T, Molinari A, Kazior J, Pieczonka T, Nykiel M (2001) Powder Metallur 44(1):48CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Yin
    • 1
  • A. J. Peyton
    • 1
  • M. Strangwood
    • 2
  • C. L. Davis
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Electrical and Electronic EngineeringUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK
  2. 2.Department of Metallurgy and MaterialsUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations