Chromium vaporization of the ferritic steel Crofer22APU and ODS Cr5Fe1Y2O3 alloy
- 158 Downloads
The chromium vaporization rate of the Crofer22APU steel as compared to Cr5Fe1Y2O3 alloy was studied under humidified air at 800 °C over a period of up to 1300 h by using the transpiration method. Under oxidizing atmosphere, the Crofer22APU steel forms a (Cr,Mn)3O4 spinel layer on the surface, which hinders chromium release at 800 °C by about a factor of 3 as compared to Cr5Fe1Y2O3 alloy forming a pure chromia scale. The impact of minor alloying additives in the Crofer22APU ferritic steel on the chromium vaporization was considered. The steel with the lowest amount of Al and Si in the matrix exhibits a low chromium vaporization rate over 1300 h. The microstructure and composition of the oxide scales and surfaces formed were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results obtained give insight into the chromium vaporization mechanism.
KeywordsOxide Scale Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ferritic Stainless Steel Vaporization Chamber Chromium Release
The authors thank Dr. E. Wessel for the SEM analysis as well as Dr. U. Breuer and Ms. A. Scholl for the TOF-SIMS analysis.
- 1.Quadakkers WJ, Piron-Abellan J, Shemet V, Singheiser L (2003) Mater high temp 20(2):115Google Scholar
- 2.Piron-Abellan J, Shemet V, Tietz F, Singheiser L, Quadakkers WJ (2001) In: Yokokawa H, Singhal SC (eds) Proceedings of the 7th international symposium on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC VII), Tsukuba, Japan, June 2001, The Electrochemical Society Proceedings, Pennington, NJ, 2001 PV. 2001–16, p 811Google Scholar
- 3.Huczkowski P, Christiansen N, Shemet V, Singheiser L, Quadakkers WJ (2004) In: Mogensen M (ed) Proceedings of the 6th European solid oxide fuel cell forum, Lucerne, Switzerland, July 2004, European Fuel Cell Forum, Oberrohrdorf, 2004 3:1594Google Scholar
- 5.Xie JJ, Yoo Y, Davidson I, Ghosh D (2004) In: Mogensen M (ed) Proceedings of the 6th European solid oxide fuel cell forum, Lucerne, Switzerland, July 2004, European Fuel Cell Forum, Oberrohrdorf, 2004 3:1602Google Scholar
- 12.Konycheva E, Penkalla H, Wessel E, Seeling U, Singheiser L, Hilpert K (2001) In: Singhal SC, Mizusaki J (eds) Proceedings of the 9th international symposium on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC IX), Quebec, Canada, May 2005, The Electrochemical Society Proceedings, Pennington, NJ, 2001, PV 2005–07, p 1874Google Scholar
- 13.Merten U, Bell WE (1967) The characterization of high-temperature vapors. John Wiley and Sons, New York, London, Sydney, 1967, p 98Google Scholar
- 15.Kofstad P (1988) High temperature corrosion. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd, London and New York p 558Google Scholar
- 16.Hagel WS (1963) Trans ASM 56:583Google Scholar