Fundamentals of thermo-sonic copper wire bonding in microelectronics packaging
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Fine copper wire bonding is capable of making reliable electrical interconnections in microelectronic packages. Copper wires of 0.8–6 mil diameter have been successfully bonded to different bond pad metallized and plated substrate materials such as Al, Cu, Ag, Au and Pd. The three metallurgical related factors; solid-solubility and diffusion of dissimilar contact metals, oxide film breakage and plastic deformation of asperities play a critical role in the bonding. Plastic deformation of an asperity is the most significant factor one has to consider to attain good bonding. Soft aluminum metal (30–40 VHN), with a lower % asperity threshold deformation is easier to wire bond than harder metallic surfaces (Ni, W, Mo, Cr, Co, Ta) of 150–500 VHN. Good adhesion of wire bonding is achieved for the surface roughness (Ra) of 0.01–0.15 μm and 0.02–0.6 μm of bare and plated surfaces respectively. It is rationalized that the application of ultrasonic energy principally breaks the oxide film and deform the asperities, while a compressive force increases the proximity of asperities. Hence wire welds to bond pad surface by molecular attraction and inter diffusion. Storage of copper ball bonds at 175 °C for 100–1,000 h forms copper aluminide at the interface. EDAX and Auger analysis reveal 22 at% Al + 78 at% Cu composition of the aluminides and Cu3Al2 empirical formula is calculated, which, does not match with any of the reported copper aluminides. Hardness of the copper ball bonds and stitch bonds are higher than wire exhibiting work hardening of the bonds on processing.
KeywordsCopper Wire Wire Bonding Ultrasonic Power Ultrasonic Energy Ball Bond
The authors are grateful to Mr. B K Tan, Mr. Chester Atlas, Mr. M. Kumar and Mr. Daniel Chau for the assistance rendered to carry out the experiments.
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