Phase transformations of calcium phosphates formed in wet field environments
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The crystal phase and morphology of calcium phosphate salts precipitated in a wet field environment at temperatures between 30 and 70 °C and pHs between 3 and 8 were examined. Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate (DCPD) was the most prevalent phase precipitated. Using accelerated ageing study techniques, precipitates studied were aged, under dry conditions at 50 °C for 8 and 16 days, before being re-examined using XRD, FTIR and SEM techniques. DCPD was found to be most stable when precipitated at 40 °C and 5 pH. Considerably more phase transformation to Octacalcium Phosphate (OCP), Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (ACP) and Hydroxyapatite (HA) was seen at high temperatures and high pHs, and a greater tendency to form anhydrous salts was seen at high temperatures and low pHs. Using techniques such as XRD, FTIR and SEM the transformation of the DCPD precipitate to OCP was analysed and appeared to occur without the presence of an intermediate amorphous phase. However, transformation from OCP to HA did result in the formation of an intermediate amorphous phase.