Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 41, Issue 23, pp 7838–7842 | Cite as

Spallation of single crystal nickel by void nucleation at shock induced grain junctions

  • S. G. SrinivasanEmail author
  • M. I. Baskes
  • G. J. Wagner


Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of spallation in single crystal nickel were performed for a range of system sizes and impact velocities. The initial compressive wave leaves a rich microstructure in its wake. The subsequent tensile waves create multiple grains and grain junctions between regions of differing crystal orientation. These grain junctions serve as void nucleation sites when the reflected tensile waves interact, leading to ductile failure. In this way, the mechanism for failure in an initially single-crystalline sample is similar to that seen experimentally in high-purity, poly-crystalline metals, in which grain boundaries are sites for void nucleation.


Impact Velocity Void Nucleation Spall Strength Free Surface Velocity Flyer Plate 



This work was funded by the ASC program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DEAC04-94AL85000. Many of the calculations were performed on the LANL QSC parallel computer using a modified version of Warp, a molecular dynamics code originally developed by Steve Plimpton at Sandia.


  1. 1.
    Gray GT III (2000) ASM Handbook 8:530Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brandon DG, Boas M, Rosenberg Z (1984) Proc. of the 3rd Conf. on the Mech. Prop. of Mater. at High Rates of Strain, 9–12 April 1984, Oxford, UK; p 261Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Angelo JE, Moody NR, Baskes MI (1995) Model Simul Mater Sci Engg 3:289; Baskes MI, Sha XW, Angelo JE, Moody NR (1997) ibid 5:651Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dekel E, Eliezer S, Henis Z, Moshe E, Ludmirsky A, Goldberg IB (1998) J Appl Phys 84:4851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Follansbee PS, Gray GT III (1991) Inter J Plast 7:651 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baumung K, Bluhm H, Kanel GI, Müller G, Razorenov SV, Singer J, Utkin AV (2001) Inter J Impact Engg 24:631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jónsson H, Andersen HC (1988) Phys Rev Lett 60:2295CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. G. Srinivasan
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. I. Baskes
    • 1
  • G. J. Wagner
    • 2
  1. 1.Materials Science & TechnologyLos Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA
  2. 2.Sandia National LaboratoriesLivermoreUSA

Personalised recommendations