Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 42, Issue 19, pp 8342–8349 | Cite as

Epoxy-imide resins from N-(4-carboxyphenyl)trimellitimide: effect of imide and aromatic content on adhesive and thermal properties

  • Ginu Abraham
  • Shanmugam Packirisamy
  • Sugu Surya Bhagawan
  • Ganapathy Balasubramanian
  • Rajagopala Iyer Ramaswamy


The effect of imide and aromatic content on the adhesive and thermal properties of epoxy-imide resins obtained through the reaction of epoxy resins viz., Araldite GY 250 (DGEBA; difunctional), Araldite EPN 1138 (novolac; polyfunctional) and epoxidized hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (EHTPB) with an imide-diacid viz., N-(4-carboxyphenyl)trimellitimide (IDA-I) was studied for different carboxyl equivalent to epoxy equivalent ratios (C/E ratios). The glass transition temperature of epoxy-imides varies from 80 to 144 °C, 120 to 184 °C and 41 to 143 °C for GY 250-IDA-I, EPN 1138-IDA-I and EHTPB-IDA-I respectively with the variation in C/E ratio from 0.5 to 2. For C/E ratio up to 1, the overall thermal stability of epoxy-imides follow the trend, EPN 1138-IDA-I > GY 250-IDA-I > EHTPB-IDA-I and above this ratio considerable improvement in overall thermal stability is observed only for EHTPB-IDA-I. The optimum C/E ratio for obtaining maximum room temperature and elevated temperature adhesive strength was found to be 1.25. For the optimum ratio, GY 250, EPN 1138 and EHTPB-based systems give adhesive strength of 29, 23 and 18 MPa respectively at room temperature and retain 78.3, 56.2 and 44.4% of the room temperature adhesive strength at 150 °C. The influence of C/E ratio or in otherwords, imide or aromatic content on the adhesive strength, thermal stability and glass transition temperature was more pronounced for aliphatic epoxy, i.e., EHTPB-based system.


Polyimide Adhesive Strength Imide Aromatic Content Imide Group 



The authors are thankful to the Director, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) for granting permission to publish this work. Thanks are due to Mr. K. S. Sastri and Dr. K. N. Ninan for encouragement. Help received from the members of the Analytical and Spectroscopy Division, VSSC for the thermal and spectral analysis of the samples is gratefully acknowledged. The authors also thank the reviewer for valuable comments. One of the authors (G.A.) is thankful to UGC, New Delhi for granting her a Fellowship.


  1. 1.
    McGrath JE, Dunson DL, Mechan SJ, Hedrick JL (1999) Adv Polym Sci 140:62Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    de Abajo J, de la Campa JG (1999) Adv Polym Sci 140:23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mittal KL (1984) In: Polyimides-synthesis, characterization and application, vol I & II. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wilson D, Stenzenberger HD, Hergenrother PM (1990) In: Polyimides. Glassgow, Blackie, London Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    St. Clair AK, Stemp WS, St. Clair TL (1979) Adhes Age 22:35Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lee H, Stoffey D, Neville K (1967) In: New linear polymers. Mc Graw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    de Abajo J (1992) In: Kricheldorf HR (ed) Handbook of polymer synthesis. Marcel Dekker, New York, p 941Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Serafini T, Delvigs P, Lithsey GR (1972) J Appl Polym Sci 16:905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kinloch AJ (1986) In: Structural adhesives. Elsevier, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    May CA (1980) In: Resins for aerospace, ACS Symp. Series No. 132. American Chemical Society, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moon YD, Lee YM (1993) J Appl Polym Sci 50:1461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stern SA, Liu Y, Feld A (1993) J Polym Sci B, Polym Phys 31:939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lee CJ (1984) U. S. Pat. 4,487,894Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Serra A, Cadiz V, Martinez PA, Mantecon A (1986) Angew Makromol Chem 138:185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chin WK, Shau MD (1996) In: Salamone CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of polymeric materials, vol 5. CRC Press, New York Chap 3, p 2210 Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Adhinarayanan K, Packirisamy S, Suma P, Ramaswamy R (1991) In: Sivaram S (ed) Polymer science, contemporary themes, vol I. Chapman & Hall, New Delhi, p 76Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Adhinarayanan K, Packirisamy S, George RS, Rao VL, Ramaswamy R (1991) J Appl Polym Sci 43:783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Packirisamy S, Adhinarayanan K, Jameela SR, Ramaswamy R (1991) In: Sivaram S (ed) Polymer science, contemporary themes, vol I. Chapman & Hall, New Delhi, p 150Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Abraham G, Packirisamy S, Adhinarayanan K, Feby AG, Ramaswamy R (2000) J Appl Polym Sci 78:1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Abraham G, Packirisamy S, Vijayan TM, Ramaswamy R (2003) J Appl Polym Sci 88:1737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Abraham G, Packirisamy S, Ramaswamy R, Thomas S (2005) Int J Polym Mat 54:1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Abraham G (2001) Ph.D. thesis, Mahatma Gandhi University, India 2001Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Abraham G, Packirisamy S, Ravindran PV, Thomas S, Ramaswamy R, to be communicatedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Latha PB, Adhinarayanan K, Ramaswamy R (1994) Int J Adhes Adhes 14:57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ichino T, Hasuda Y (1987) J Appl Polym Sci 34:1667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Louis V, Adams M, Crannon JH (1986) In: Mark HF, Bikales NM, Overberger CG, Menges G (eds) Encyclopedia of polymer science and engineering, vol 6. Wiley Interscience, New York, p 322Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bhatnagar MS (1996) In: Salomone CJ (ed) Encyclopedia of polymeric materials, vol 5. CRC Press, Boca Racton, p 2233Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ginu Abraham
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shanmugam Packirisamy
    • 1
  • Sugu Surya Bhagawan
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ganapathy Balasubramanian
    • 3
  • Rajagopala Iyer Ramaswamy
    • 1
  1. 1.Polymers and Special Chemicals DivisionPropellant and Special Chemicals Group, PCM Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space CentreThiruvananthapuramIndia
  2. 2.The Centre for Advanced Macromolecular Design (CAMD)School of Chemical Sciences and EngineeringKensington, SydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Propellant Engineering DivisionPropellant and Special Chemicals Group, PCM Entity, Vikram Sarabhai Space CentreThiruvananthapuramIndia
  4. 4.Department of Polymer EngineeringAmritha School of EngineeringCoimbatoreIndia

Personalised recommendations