Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 42, Issue 10, pp 3592–3602 | Cite as

Assessment of durability of recycled aggregate concrete produced by two-stage mixing approach

  • Vivian W. Y. TamEmail author
  • C. M. Tam


As more than 50% construction and demolition (C&D) wastes are composed of concrete debris in Hong Kong, recycling this debris into Recycled Aggregate (RA) for production of Recycled Aggregate Concrete (RAC) is an efficient way to alleviate the burden on landfill areas. Since RA is generated from concrete debris which has undergone years of services, the resulting RAC bears the weaknesses of lower density, higher water absorption, and higher porosity that limit them to lower-grade applications. Pinpointing to these weaknesses, Tam et al. [2005, Cement Concrete Res 35(6):1195–1203] developed the Two-Stage Mixing Approach (TSMA) for improving the strength of RAC, leading to the possibility in applying RAC for higher-grade applications. While the improvement in strength by TSMA has been proven in Tam et al.’s work [2005, Cement Concrete Res 35(6):1195–1203], the durability, in terms of deformation (shrinkage and creep) and permeability (water, air and chloride permeability), remains to be verified. In this paper, 0%, 20% and 100% of RA substitutions have been experimented to compare the durability performance of the Normal Mixing Approach (NMA) and the TSMA. Experiment results highlight that: (i) the higher the substitutions of RA, the weaker the performance of RAC; and (ii) the deformation and permeability of RAC can be enhanced when adopting TSMA. Therefore, it demonstrates that TSMA can help to improve the durability of RAC, on top of the previously verified strength improvement, and thus opening up wider applications of RAC.


Shrinkage Creep Strain Coarse Aggregate Calcium Silicate Hydrate Cement Mortar 



The work described in this paper was fully supported by a grant from the Housing Authority Research Fund of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project Ref. No. 9460004).


  1. 1.
    Coventry S (1999) The reclaimed and recycled construction materials handbook. Construction Industry Research and Information Association, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hendriks CF, Pietersen HS (2000) Sustainable raw materials: construction and demolition waste. RILEM Publication, Cachan Cedex, FranceGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Masters N (2001) Sustainable use of new and recycled materials in coastal and fluvial construction: a guidance manual. London, Thomas TelfordGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sagoe-Crentsil KK, Brown T, Taylor AH (2001) Cement Concrete Res 31:707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Carneiro AP, Cassa JC, DeBrum IA, Vieira AM, Costa ADB, Sampaio TS, Alberte EPV (2000) In: Waste materials in construction: WASCON 2000: proceedings of the International Conference on the Science and Engineering of Recycling for Environmental Protection, Harrogate, England, pp 825–835Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kawano H (2000) Barriers for sustainable use of concrete materials, Concrete technology for a sustainable development in the 21st century. E & FN Spon, London, New York, 288Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aitcin PC, Neville AM (1993) Concrete Int 15(1):21Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alexander MG (1996) The effects of ageing on the interfacial zone in concrete, Interfacial transition zone in concrete: state-of-the-art report 1996:150Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bentz DP, Garboczi EJ (1991) Simulation studies of the effects of mineral admixtures on the cement paste-aggregate interfacial zone. ACI Mater J September–October 1991:518Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. Buch, Frabizzio MA (2000) Hiller JE, Impact of coarse aggregates on transverse crack performance in jointed concrete pavements. ACI Mater J May–June 2000:325Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chan CY, Fong FK (2002) Development in recycling of construction and demolition materials. Civil Engineering Department, Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Farran J (1956) Contribution of microstructure of minerals and their bonding with Portland cement paste, Rev, Material, Construction, Travel Publics, pp 490–491Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jia W, Baoyuan L, Songshan X, Zhongwei W (1986) In: Proceedings of the 8th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement, pp 460–465Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kawano H (1995) In: Integrated design and environmental issues in concrete technology: proceedings of the International Workshop ‘Rational Design of Concrete Structures under Severe Conditions’. London: E & FN Spon, Hakodate, Japan, pp 243–249Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Keru W, Jianhua Z (1988) Mater Res Soc 114:29Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kwan AKH, Wang ZM, Chan HC (1999) Comput Struct 70(5):545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Larbi JA (1991) The cement paste-aggregate interfacial zone in concreteTechnical University of DelftGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li G, Xie H, Xiong G (2001) Cement Concrete Comp 23(4–5):381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lo YT (2000) Microstructure study of the aggregate/cement paste interfacial zone of lightweight concrete. Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong KongGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mehta PK, Aitcin PC (1990) Second Int Symp ACI SP 121:265Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mitsui K, Li Z, Lange DA, Shah SP (1994) ACI Mater J 91(1):30Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mohamed AR, Hansen W (1999) Cement Concrete Comp 21(5–6):349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Olorunsogo FT, Padayachee N (2002) Cement Concrete Res 32(2):179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Popovics S (1987) Mater Struct 20(115):32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ravindrarajah RS, Tam CT (1988) In: Demolition and reuse of concrete and masonry: reuse of demolition waste. London, Chapman and Hall, pp 575–584Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Scrivener KL, Nemati KM (1996) Cement Concrete Res 26(1):35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tasdemir MA, Tasdemir C, Akyuz S, Jefferson AD, Lydon FD, Barr BIG (1998) Cement Concrete Comp 20(4):301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tomosawa F, Noguchi T (2000) In: Concrete technology for a sustainable development in the 21st century. London, New York, E & FN Spon, pp 274–287Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang ZM, Kwan AKH, Chan HC (1999) Comput Struct 70(5):533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Xueqan W, Dongxu L, Qinghan B, Liqun G, Minshu T (1987) Cement Concrete Res 17(5):709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zaharieva R, Buyle-Bodin F, Skoczylas F, Wirquin E (2003) Cement Concrete Comp 25(2):223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Emmons PH, Vaysburd AM (1996) Constr Build Mater 10(1):69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kikuchi M, Yasunaga A, Ehara K (1994) In: Demolition and reuse of concrete and masonry, Proceedings of the third international RILEM symposium. E&FN Spon, pp 367–378Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Oh BH, Cha SW, Jang BS, Jang SY (2002) Nucl Eng Des 212(1–3):221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sakai K, Banthia N (2000) In: Concrete Technology for a Sustainable Development in the 21st century. E&FN Spon, London, pp 14–26Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sanjuan MA, R. Munoz-Martialay (1996) Mater Lett 27(4–5):269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zakaria M, Cabrera JG (1996) Waste Manage 16(1–3):151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tam WYV, Gao XF, Tam CM (2005) Cement Concrete Res 35(6):1195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Buildings Department, in: (2005)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kasai Y (2005) In: Recycling concrete and other materials for sustainable development, pp 11–34Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kikuchi M, Mukai T, Koizumi H (1988) In: Demolition and reuse of concrete and masonry: reuse of demolition waste. London, Chapman and Hall, pp 595–604Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hong Kong Government (1990) Construction standard: testing concrete. Hong Kong GovernmentGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Benboudjema F, Meftah F, Torrenti JM (2005) Eng Struct 27(2):239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Liu Z, Beaudoin JJ (2000) Cement Concrete Aggr 22(1):16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    BS 1881 (1970) Part 5, Determination of changes in length on drying and wetting. British Standard Institution, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    ASTM C512–02 (2002) Standard test method for creep of concrete in compression. American Society for Testing and Materials, United StatesGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    AASHTO T277 (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials) (1983) Rapid determination of the chloride permeability of concrete. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, United States of AmericanGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Topcu IB, Sengel S (2004) Cement Concrete Res 34(8):1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hewlett PC (1998) Lea’s chemistry of cement and concrete. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mehta PK, Monteiro JM (1993) Concrete: structure, properties, and materialsGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mindess S, Young F, Darwin D (2003) Concrete Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Neville AM (1995) Properties of concreteGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Barr BIG, Hoseinian SB, Beygi MA (2003) Cement Concrete Comp 25(1):19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Holt E (2005) Cement Concrete Res 35(3):464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Holt E, Leivo M (2004) Cement Concrete Comp 26(5):521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rongbing B, Jian S (2005) Cement Concrete Res 35(3):445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ajdukiewicz A, Kliszuzewicz A (2002) Cement Concrete Comp 24(2):269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Katz A (2003) Cement Concrete Res 33(5):703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mesbah HA, Buyle-Bodin F (1999) Constr Build Mater 13(8):439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Figg J (1992) In: Durability of concrete: Idorn GM International Symposium. Detroit, Mich., American Concrete Institute, pp 289–303Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ghalibafian M, Shekarchi M, Zare A, Tasdaiion M (2003) In: Sixth Canmet/ACI International Conference on Durability of Concrete. Farmington Hills, Mich., ACI International, pp 737–753Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Griffith School of Engineering, Gold Coast CampusGriffith UniversityQldAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Building and ConstructionCity University of Hong KongHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations