Acid-mediated sol–gel synthesis of visible-light active photocatalysts
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Photocatalysis by visible light has received a great deal of attention ever since titanium oxide was first discovered to exhibit photocatalytic activity under ultraviolet radiation in 1970s [1, 2]. To equip titanium oxide with visible light activity, cationic doping by transition metal elements has been extensively investigated [3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. The problems with the photocatalysts so prepared are their low conversion efficiency of photo-generated carriers and poor thermal instability [8, 9]. After Asahi et al.  found N-doped TiO2 synthesized by sputtering methods showed remarkable visible-light absorption, other methods in doping nitrogen and other anions into TiO2 have also been reported subsequently [11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18]. For example, Umebayashi  et al. succeeded in synthesizing S anion doped TiO2 by oxidation annealing of titanium disulfide. Khan et al.  prepared C-doped TiO2by controlled combustion of titanium metal in a natural gas flame. Sivalingam et al....
KeywordsTiO2 Methylene Blue Photocatalytic Activity TiO2 Lattice Undoped TiO2
Support for this study was provided by the Chinese Natural Science Foundation through the grant No. 50342001 and by the STC program of the US National Science Foundation under Agreement No. CTS-0120978.
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