Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 41, Issue 18, pp 6159–6161 | Cite as

Application of electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry for characterization of titanium polyoxoalkoxides in sol-gel processes

  • A. Soloviev
  • E. G. SøgaardEmail author

Sol-gel derived titanium dioxide nanoparticles with controlled size distribution and morphology are of great interest for different applications [1]. Understanding the phenomena occurring during the initial stage of particle growth is especially important, because they determine the properties of the final products (powders, films, gels). The titania sol-gel polymerization follows essentially a different pathway than the relatively well studied silicon based sol-gel process [2]. Generally, in the silicon case, individual monosilicate serves as building units during the process, while in the titania polymerization the role of building blocks can be played by polyoxoalcoxides (titanium oxide clusters) [2, 3, 4]. Particularly Ti11O13(OC3H7)18 was proposed as such a building block in the case of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) based sol-gel process [3]. A stable solution of these clusters can be obtained by hydrolysis of TTIP under low hydrolysis ratios H < 1 (His the molar ratio of water...


Induction Period Titanium Atom Monosilicate Hydrolysis Ratio Fine Structure Line 



The authors acknowledge Henrik Sillen and Gorm Karstens (Agilent Technologies A/S) for their kind help with ESI-MS experiments.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Chemistry and Applied Engineering ScienceAalborg University EsbjergEsbjergDenmark

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