Application of electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry for characterization of titanium polyoxoalkoxides in sol-gel processes
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Sol-gel derived titanium dioxide nanoparticles with controlled size distribution and morphology are of great interest for different applications . Understanding the phenomena occurring during the initial stage of particle growth is especially important, because they determine the properties of the final products (powders, films, gels). The titania sol-gel polymerization follows essentially a different pathway than the relatively well studied silicon based sol-gel process . Generally, in the silicon case, individual monosilicate serves as building units during the process, while in the titania polymerization the role of building blocks can be played by polyoxoalcoxides (titanium oxide clusters) [2, 3, 4]. Particularly Ti11O13(OC3H7)18 was proposed as such a building block in the case of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) based sol-gel process . A stable solution of these clusters can be obtained by hydrolysis of TTIP under low hydrolysis ratios H < 1 (His the molar ratio of water...
KeywordsInduction Period Titanium Atom Monosilicate Hydrolysis Ratio Fine Structure Line
The authors acknowledge Henrik Sillen and Gorm Karstens (Agilent Technologies A/S) for their kind help with ESI-MS experiments.
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