Preparation and characterization of nanosized barium calcium titanate crystallites by low temperature direct synthesis
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Over the past decade, the effect of impurities on characteristic of BaTiO3 has been widely studied. Calcium is one of the most common impurities doped in the BaTiO3 ceramics. It has been reported [1, 2, 3] that Ca2+ can occupies Ba2+ as well as Ti4+ sites. There are no direct evidences given into the Ca2+ cation substitution. Hence the formula BCxT, where x represents the initial molar ratio of [Ca2+]/[Ba2+ + Ca2+], is adopted in this paper so as to imply no a priori commitment of the place occupancy of Ca2+ ions in BaTiO3 lattices. The partial replacement of Ba2+ by Ca2+ was reported [3, 4, 5] to broaden the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant, improve the electromechanical behavior, and inhibit the formation of the unwanted hexagonal phase of BaTiO3. While the BaTiO3 ceramics with Ca2+ occupying Ti4+ sites can be co-sintered with Ni electrodes under a reducing atmosphere without changing into semiconductor.
In view of the commercial importance, calcium substituted BaTiO
KeywordsBaTiO3 Dissipation Factor BaTiO3 Ceramic Calcium Titanate Barium Calcium
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 20236020, 20325621), the Talent Training Program of the Beijing City (grant no. 9558103500), and the Fok Ying Tung Foundation (grant no. 81063).
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