Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 669–676 | Cite as

Design rules for reversible thermochromic mixtures



The results of a systematic study of the influence of the color developer and the solvent on thermochromic properties of a reversible thermochromic system—crystal violet lactone as dye; propyl gallate, octyl gallate or lauryl gallate as developer; 1-tetradecanol, 1-hexadecanol or 1-octadecanol as solvent—are presented. Thermodynamic analysis of the developer-solvent phase diagrams is used to determine and compare the developer-solvent interactions in the systems, and observed variations in thermochromic properties are correlated with these interactions. The relationship between thermochromic behavior and competing dye-developer and developer-solvent interactions leads us to the first design rules for reversible thermochromic mixtures based on intermolecular interactions.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    M. A. WHITE and M. LEBLANC, J. Chem. Ed. 76 (1999) 1201.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. OGAWA, J. HARADA, T. FUJIWARA and S. YOSHIDA, J. Phys. Chem. A 105 (2001) 3425.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. MATSUOKA, in “Chemistry of Functional Dyes” (Mita Press, Tokyo, 1992) vol. 1.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. HIDEAKI, K. KEISHI, K. TSUTSUI, H. GOTO, E. KAWAMURA, H. KUBOYAMA, S. MARUYAMA, I. SAWAMURA, M. SHIMADA and T. YAMAGUCHI, Ricoh Co., European Patent 0576015, 1994.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. AITKEN, S. M. BURKINSHAW, J. GRIFFITHS and A. D. TOWNS, Rev. Prog. Coloration 26 (1996) 1.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. C. MACLAREN and M. A. WHITE, J. Mater. Chem. 13 (2003) 1695.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. C. MACLAREN and M. A. WHITE, J. Mater. Chem. 13 (2003) 1701.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. FINDLAY and A. N. CAMPBELL, “The Phase Rule and Its Applications,” 8th edn. (Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1940) p. 111.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. R. MATHER, Rev. Prog. Color. 31 (2001) 36.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. WINDHOLZ, S. DUBAVARI, R. F. BLUMETTI, E. S. OTTERBEIN (eds.), “The Merck Index” 10th ed. (Merck & Co., N.J. Rahway, 1983).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. A. JEFFREY and Y. YEON, Acta Cryst. B46 (1990) 519.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. G. MORRIS and R. W. RIEMENSCHNEIDER, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 68 (1946) 500.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. REUTER and A. WURFLINGER, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 99 (1995) 1247.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. MOSSELMAN, J. MOURIK and H. DEKKAR, J. Chem. Thermodynamics 6 (1974) 477.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. TASUMI, T. SHIMANOUCHI, A. WATANABE and R. GOTO, Spectrochimica Acta 20 (1964) 629.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. C. VAN MILTENBURG and H. A. J. OONK, J. Chem. Eng. Data 46 (2001) 90.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. LIN-VLEN, N. B. COLTROP, W. G. FATELEY and J. G. GRASSELLI, “The Handbook of Infrared and Raman Characteristic Frequencies of Organic Molecules” (Academic Press, San Diego, 1991) p. 105.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    L. ANGELONI, G. SMULEVICH and M. P. MARZOCCHI, J. Raman Spec. 8 (1979) 305.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. VARSANYI, “Assignments for Vibrational Spectra of Seven Hundred Benzene Derivatives” (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1974) vol. 1.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. FARINA, G. DISILVESTRO and A. COLOMBO, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 137 (1986) 265.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    I. PRIGOGINE and R. DEFAY, “Chemical Thermodynamics” (Longmans, London, 1965) p. 381.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    E. A. GUGGENHEIM, “Mixtures” (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1953) p. 29.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    D.C. MACLAREN, PhD thesis, Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada, 2003.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. LUTHERN and A. PEREDES, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 22 (2003) 881.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    K. NAKASONE, K. SHIOKAWA, Y. URABE and N. NEMOTO, J. Phys. Chem. B 104 (2000) 7483.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    K. YAMANE and M. NISHIOKA, OJI Paper Co., U.S. Patent 5,928,988, 1999.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. YAMAMOTO, T. SHIONO and T. SAIMI, U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. 122,374 A1 2002.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    G. D. WHITE, D. A. ZARTMAN and J. M. BONICAMP, Chem. Educator 5 (2000) 2.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. M. BURKINSHAW, J. GRIFFITHS and A. D. TOWNS, J. Mater. Chem. 8 (1998) 2677.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. LUTHERN and A. PEREDES, J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 19 (2000) 185.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Institute for Research in MaterialsDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

Personalised recommendations