Journal of Logic, Language and Information

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 201–228 | Cite as

PGF: A Portable Run-time Format for Type-theoretical Grammars

  • Krasimir Angelov
  • Björn Bringert
  • Aarne Ranta


Portable Grammar Format (PGF) is a core language for type-theoretical grammars. It is the target language to which grammars written in the high-level formalism Grammatical Framework (GF) are compiled. Low-level and simple, PGF is easy to reason about, so that its language-theoretic properties can be established. It is also easy to write interpreters that perform parsing and generation with PGF grammars, and compilers converting PGF to other formats. This paper gives a concise description of PGF, covering syntax, semantics, and parser generation. It also discusses the technique of embedded grammars, where language processing tasks defined by PGF grammars are integrated in larger systems.


Noun Phrase Operational Semantic Abstract Syntax Dialogue System Concrete Syntax 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krasimir Angelov
    • 1
  • Björn Bringert
    • 1
    • 2
  • Aarne Ranta
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of TechnologyUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  2. 2.Google IncMountain ViewUSA

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