Journal of Logic, Language and Information

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 325–356 | Cite as

Anti-dynamics: presupposition projection without dynamic semantics

  • Philippe Schlenker


Heim 1983 suggested that the analysis of presupposition projection requires that the classical notion of meanings as truth conditions be replaced with a dynamic notion of meanings as Context Change Potentials. But as several researchers (including Heim herself) later noted, the dynamic framework is insufficiently predictive: although it allows one to state that, say, the dynamic effect of F and G is to first update a Context Set C with F and then with G (i.e., C[F and G] = C[F][G]), it fails to explain why there couldn’t be a ‘deviant’ conjunction and* which performed these operations in the opposite order (i.e., C[F and* G] = C[G][F]). We provide a formal introduction to a competing framework, the Transparency theory, which addresses this problem. Unlike dynamic semantics, our analysis is fully classical, i.e., bivalent and static. And it derives the projective behavior of connectives from their bivalent meaning and their syntax. We concentrate on the formal properties of a simple version of the theory, and we prove that (i) full equivalence with Heim’s results is guaranteed in the propositional case (Theorem 1), and that (ii) the equivalence can be extended to the quantificational case (for any generalized quantifiers), but only when certain conditions are met (Theorem 2).


Presupposition Dynamic semantics Trivalence Presupposition projection 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philippe Schlenker
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.UCLALos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Institut Jean-NicodParisFrance

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