Preparation & characterization of embelin–phospholipid complex as effective drug delivery tool

Original Article


The aim of the present study was to prepare an embelin–phospholipid complex (EPC) formulation in an attempt to enhance the water solubility and to characterize the new developed formulation. Embelin, due to water insolubility causes poor bioavailability by oral route. To improve the bioavailability and prolong its duration in body system, its phospholipid complexes were prepared by a simple and reproducible method. EPC was formulated by mechanical dispersion method using ethanol as a reaction medium, embelin and phospholipids were dissolved into the medium, after that organic solvent was removed under vacuum condition and EPC was formed. The complex formation was confirmed by carrying out FTIR, 1H-NMR, XRD, DSC and microscopical studies. Solubility and in vitro studies were carried out to ascertain the solubility and dissolution pattern of free and complexed embelin. Content of embelin in EPC was found to be 92.44% (w/w). FTIR, 1H NMR, DSC and XRD data confirmed the formation of embelin phospholipid complex. Water solubility of embelin was improved from 3 to 42 μg/mL in the prepared complex. n-Octanol solubility were also altered for free embelin and EPC from 2.3 to 39 μg/mL. Unlike the free embelin, which showed a total of only 19% drug release at the end of 120 min, EPC showed 99.80% release at the end of 120 min of dissolution study in distilled water. Microscopical characterization of the developed formulation also showed the entrapment of embelin in the lipid core showing complex structure, which was further, supported by change in surface morphology of embelin on microscopical examination. Hence, the present findings demonstrate that complexing embelin with phospholipid can be further explored for improved therapeutic implications.


Embelin Phospholipid complex Solubility XRD DSC FTIR 


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyFaculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard UniversityNew DelhiIndia

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