Ligand Exchange Processes on Solvated Lithium Cations. II. Complexation by Cryptands in γ-Butyrolactone as Solvent

  • Ewa Pasgreta
  • Ralph Puchta
  • Michael Galle
  • Nico van Eikema Hommes
  • Achim Zahl
  • Rudi van EldikEmail author


Kinetic studies on Li+ exchange between the cryptands C222 and C221, and γ-butyrolactone as solvent were performed as a function of ligand-to-metal ratio, temperature and pressure using 7Li NMR. The thermal rate and activation parameters are: C222: k 298 = (3.3 ± 0.8)×104 M−1 s−1, ΔH # = 35 ± 1 kJ mol−1 and ΔS # = −41 ± 3 J K−1 mol−1; C221: k 298 = 105 ± 32 M−1 s−1, ΔH # = 48 ± 1 kJ mol−1 and ΔS # = −45 ± 2 J K−1 mol−1. Temperature and pressure dependence measurements were performed in the presence of an excess of Li+. The influence of pressure on the exchange rate is insignificant for both ligands, such that the value of activation volume is around zero within the experimental error limits. The activation parameters obtained in this study indicate that the exchange of Li+ between solvated and chelated Li+ ions follows an associative interchange mechanism.


γ-butyrolactone cryptands exchange mechanism Lithium 


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This work was supported by the EC TMR network HPRN-CT-2000-19 (“Solvation Dynamics and Ionic Mobility in Conventional and Polymer Solvents”) and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 583 on Redox-active Metal Complexes). We would like to thank Dr. Lothar Helm (EPFL Lausanne) for introducing E.P to NMRICMA 2.7, Prof. Walter Bauer for helpful discussions, Prof. Tim Clark for hosting this work in the CCC and the Regionales Rechenzentrum Erlangen (RRZE) for a generous allotment of computer time.

Supplementary material


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ewa Pasgreta
    • 1
  • Ralph Puchta
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael Galle
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nico van Eikema Hommes
    • 2
  • Achim Zahl
    • 1
  • Rudi van Eldik
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute for Inorganic ChemistryUniversity of Erlangen-NürnbergErlangenGermany
  2. 2.Computer Chemistry CenterUniversity of Erlangen-NürnbergErlangenGermany

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