Azocalixarenes: Synthesis, Characterization, Complexation, Extraction, Absorption Properties and Thermal Behaviours

  • Hasalettin Deligöz
Review Article


Azocalixarenes, which have a conjugated chromophore azo (–N=N–) group in p-positions, are synthesized in “one-pot” procedures in satisfactory yields. Their structures in the solid and solution are elucidated by UV–vis, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic methods as well as elemental analysis techniques. Some of them are complexed with metal ions (alkali, alkaline-earth and transition metal ions) under neutral conditions. A wide variety of applications is expected by the functionalization of the side arms. The selective liquid–liquid extraction of various alkali, alkaline-earth and transition metal cations from the aqueous phase to the organic phase is carried out by using azocalixarenes. Furthermore, the synthesized azocalixarenes are utilized for selective extraction of Fe3+ cations from the aqueous phase to the organic phase. The effects of varying pH and solvent upon the absorption ability of azocalixarenes substituted with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups at their o-, m-, p-positions are examined. The thermal behaviours of azocalixarenes containing upper rim functionalized groups are investigated by means of thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG).


absorption properties azocalixarene complexation extraction thermal behaviours 


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The author is grateful to Professor Mustafa Yılmaz (Selçuk University, Faculty of Science-Arts, Department of Chemistry, Konya, Turkey) for encouragement of this work. The author also thanks Prof. Halil Çetişli for DTA/DTG spectroscopic analyses, and Dr. İzzet Şener (Pamukkale University, Faculty of Science-Arts, Department of Chemistry, Denizli, Turkey) for collaborations.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Hasalettin Deligöz
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Science-Arts, Department of ChemistryPamukkale UniversityDenizliTurkey

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