A Unified Approach to Consensus Control of Three-Link Manipulators

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We consider a consensus control problem for a set of three-link manipulators connected by digraphs. Assume that the control inputs of each manipulator are the torques on its links and they are generated by adjusting the weighted difference between the manipulator’s states and those of its neighbor agents. Then, we propose a condition for adjusting the weighting coefficients in the control inputs, so that full consensus is achieved among the manipulators. By designing complex Hurwitz polynomials, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for achieving the consensus. Moreover, the discussion is extended to the case of designing convergence rate of consensus. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the condition and the design conditions.

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The authors would like to thank Professor Lianglin Xiong with Yunnan Minzu University for valuable discussion.

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Correspondence to Guisheng Zhai.

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Appendix: Matrices in Dynamical System (3)

Appendix: Matrices in Dynamical System (3)

By using the joint angles 𝜃1, 𝜃2, 𝜃3 to compute h1(x), h2(x),h3(x) in V (x) and then substituting \(T(x, \dot {x})\), V (x) into the Lagrange’s equation, we obtain the dynamical (3).

To describe the matrices M(x), \(V(x, \dot {x})\) and G(x) in detail, we use the following shorthand notations

$$ c_{i} {=} \cos \theta_{i} , \quad c_{ij} {=} \cos (\theta_{i} + \theta_{j}) , s_{i} = \sin \theta_{i} , \quad s_{ij} = \sin (\theta_{i} + \theta_{j}) , $$

and let Ixi, Iyi, Izi be the moments of inertia about the x −, y −, and z −axes of the i th link frame. Then, M(x), \(V(x, \dot {x})\) and G(x) are as follows [25].

Manipulator inertia matrix M(x):

$$ \begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} M(x) = \left[ \begin{array}{rrr} M_{11} & M_{12} & M_{13}\\ M_{21} & M_{22} & M_{23} \\ M_{31} & M_{32} & M_{33} \end{array}\right] \end{array} $$


$$ \begin{array}{rcl} M_{11} &=& I_{y2}{s_{2}^{2}} +I_{y3} s_{23}^{2} +I_{z1} + I_{z2} {c_{2}^{2}} +I_{z3} c_{23}^{2} +m_{2}{r_{1}^{2}} {c_{2}^{2}} \\ &&+m_{3}(l_{1} c_{2} + r_{2} c_{23})^{2} \\ M_{22} &=& I_{x2} + I_{x3} + m_{3} {l_{1}^{2}} +m_{2} {r_{1}^{2}} +m_{3} {r_{2}^{2}} + 2 m_{3} l_{1} r_{2} c_{3} \\ M_{23} &=& I_{x3} +m_{3} {r_{2}^{2}}+m_{3} l_{1} r_{2} c_{3} \\ M_{32} &=& I_{x3} + m_{3} {r_{2}^{2}}+m_{3} l_{1} r_{2} c_{3} \\ M_{33} &=& I_{x3} + m_{3} {r_{2}^{2}} \\ M_{12} &=& M_{13}= M_{21}= M_{31}= 0 . \end{array} $$

Coriolis matrix \(V(x,\dot {x})\):

$$ V(x, \dot{x}) = \left[ \begin{array}{rrr} V_{11} & V_{12} & V_{13}\\ V_{21} & V_{22} & V_{23}\\ V_{31} & V_{32} & V_{33} \end{array}\right] $$

where \(V_{ij} = v_{ij1}\dot {\theta }_{1} + v_{ij2} \dot {\theta }_{2} + v_{ij3} \dot {\theta }_{3}\) and

$$ \begin{array}{rcl} v_{112} &=& (I_{y2}-I_{z2}-m_{2} {r_{1}^{2}} ) c_{2} s_{2} + (I_{y3}-I_{z3})c_{23} s_{23} \\ &&-m_{3} (l_{1} c_{2} + r_{2} c_{23})(l_{1} s_{2} + r_{2} s_{23})\\ v_{113} &=& (I_{y3}-I_{z3})c_{23} s_{23} -m_{3} r_{2} s_{23}(l_{1} c_{2} + r_{2} c_{23})\\ v_{121} &=& (I_{y2}-I_{z2}-m_{2} {r_{1}^{2}} ) c_{2} s_{2} + (I_{y3}-I_{z3})c_{23} s_{23} \\ &&-m_{3} (l_{1} c_{2} + r_{2} c_{23})(l_{1} s_{2} + r_{2} s_{23})\\ v_{131} &=& (I_{y3} - I_{z3})c_{23} s_{23} - m_{3} r_{2} s_{23} (l_{1} c_{2} + r_{2} c_{23})\\ v_{211} &=& (I_{z2}-I_{y2}+ m_{2} {r_{1}^{2}} ) c_{2} s_{2} + (I_{z3}-I_{y3}) c_{23} s_{23} \\ &&+m_{3} (l_{1} c_{2} + r_{2} c_{23})(l_{1} s_{2} + r_{2} s_{23})\\ v_{223} &=& v_{232} = v_{233}= -l_{1} m_{3} r_{2} s_{3} \\ v_{311} &=& (I_{z3}-I_{y3}) c_{23} s_{23} + m_{3} r_{2} s_{23} (l_{1} c_{2} + r_{2} c_{23})\\ v_{322} &=& l_{1} m_{3} r_{2} s_{3} \\ v_{111} &=& v_{122} = v_{123} = v_{132} = v_{133} = v_{212} = v_{213} =v_{221} = v_{222} \\ &{=}& v_{231}{=}v_{312} {=} v_{313} = v_{321}= v_{323} = v_{331} = v_{332} = v_{333} = 0 . \end{array} $$

Gravity terms etc G(x):

$$ G(x)=\left[ \begin{array}{c} 0 \\ -(m_{2} g r_{1} + m_{3} g l_{1})c_{2} -m_{3} g r_{2} c_{23} \\ -m_{3} g r_{2} c_{23} \\ \end{array}\right] . $$

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Zhai, G., Nakamura, S. & Mardlijah A Unified Approach to Consensus Control of Three-Link Manipulators. J Intell Robot Syst 97, 3–15 (2020) doi:10.1007/s10846-019-01032-y

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  • Three-link manipulators
  • Consensus algorithms
  • Graph Laplacian
  • Complex Hurwitz polynomials
  • Consensus rate