Advertisement

Power Characterization of a Skid-Steered Mobile Field Robot with an Application to Headland Turn Optimization

  • Sedat Dogru
  • Lino Marques
Article
  • 98 Downloads

Abstract

Skid-steered platforms are in use for many different purposes, including demining, military, construction and agriculture. Their power consumption varies considerably with the maneuver they are performing, depending heavily on its radius of curvature. Therefore, efficient operation of skid-steered platforms for any purpose requires proper path planning based on a mathematical model of their power consumption. With this fact in mind, this paper studies the power consumption characterization of skid-steered vehicles and presents a method based on physical principles to estimate friction on arbitrary surfaces, and then derives a mathematical model of friction in skid-steered platforms, showing that friction in such platforms depends on the radius of curvature and slip angles of the wheels. Afterwards, the derived model is used to show the optimum type of Π turns using a skid-steered platform in a coverage path planning scenario. The proposed friction model, as well as its forecast on the optimum Π turn, are verified using both indoor and outdoor field data.

Keywords

Skid-steer Friction estimation Power characterization Terrain UGV Headland Turn CPP 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Acar, E., Choset, H., Rizzi, A., Atkar, P., Hull, D.: Morse decompositions for coverage tasks. Int. J. Robot. Res. 21(4), 331–344 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Backman, J., Piirainen, P., Oksanen, T.: Smooth turning path generation for agricultural vehicles in headlands. Biosyst. Eng. 139, 76–86 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berenz, V., Tanaka, F., Suzuki, K.: Autonomous battery management for mobile robots based on risk and gain assessment. Artif. Intell. Rev. 37(3), 217–237 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bochtis, D., Vougioukas, S.: Minimising the non-working distance travelled by machines operating in a headland field pattern. Biosyst. Eng. 101(1), 1–12 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brateman, J., Xian, C., Lu, Y.H.: Energy-Effcient scheduling for autonomous mobile robots. In: 2006 IFIP international conference on very large scale integration, pp. 361–366 (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Broderick, J.A., Tilbury, D.M., Atkins, E.M.: Characterizing energy usage of a commercially available ground robot: method and results. J. Field Rob. 31(3), 441–454 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cariou, C., Lenain, R., Thuilot, B., Martinet, P.: Motion planner and lateral-longitudinal controllers for autonomous maneuvers of a farm vehicle in headland. In: 2009 IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems, pp. 5782–5787 (2009)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chuy, O., Collins, E.G.J., Yu, W., Ordonez, C.: Power modeling of a skid steered wheeled robotic ground vehicle. In: 2009. ICRA ’09. IEEE international conference on robotics and automation, pp. 4118–4123 (2009)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dogru, S., Marques, L.: Energy efficient coverage path planning for autonomous mobile robots on 3D terrain. In: 2015 IEEE international conference on autonomous robot systems and competitions (ICARSC), pp. 118–123. IEEE, Piscataway (2015)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dogru, S., Marques, L.: Power characterization of a skid-steered mobile field robot. In: 2016 international conference on autonomous robot systems and competitions (ICARSC), pp. 15–20 (2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gabriely, Y., Rimon, E.: Spiral-STC: an On-Line coverage algorithm of grid environments by a mobile robot. In: Proceedings. ICRA ’02. IEEE international conference on robotics and automation, 2002, vol. 1, pp. 954–960 (2002)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grosch, K.A.: The relation between the friction and visco-elastic properties of rubber. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 274(1356), 21–39 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guo, T., Peng, H.: A simplified skid-steering model for torque and power analysis of tracked small unmanned ground vehicles. In: American control conference (ACC), 2013, pp. 1106–1111 (2013)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hoogterp, F.B., Meldrum, W.R.: Differential torque steering for future combat vehicles. Tech. rep., SAE Technical Paper (1999)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jimenez, P.A., Shirinzadeh, B., Nicholson, A., Alici, G.: Optimal area covering using genetic algorithms. In: 2007 IEEE/ASME international conference on advanced intelligent mechatronics, pp. 1–5. IEEE, Piscataway (2007)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lorenz, B., Oh, Y.R., Nam, S.K., Jeon, S.H., Persson, B.N.J.: Rubber friction on road surfaces: Experiment and theory for low sliding speeds. J. Chem. Phys. 142(19), 194701 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Maclaurin, B.: Comparing the steering performances of skid-and ackermann-steered vehicles. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering 222(5), 739–756 (2008)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mei, Y., Lu, Y.H., Hu, Y., Lee, C.: A case study of mobile robot’s energy consumption and conservation techniques. In: 2005. ICAR ’05. Proceedings., 12Th international conference on advanced robotics, pp. 492–497 (2005)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mei, Y., Lu, Y.H., Lee, C., Hu, Y.: Energy-Efficient mobile robot exploration. In: ICRA 2006. Proceedings 2006 IEEE international conference on robotics and automation, 2006, pp. 505–511 (2006)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Meldrum, W.R., Hoogterp, F.B., Kovnat, A.R.: Modeling and simulation of a differential torque steered wheeled vehicle. Tech. rep., DTIC Document (1999)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morales, J., Martinez, J., Mandow, A., Garcia-Cerezo, A., Pedraza, S.: Power consumption modeling of skid-steer tracked mobile robots on rigid terrain. IEEE Trans. Robot. 25(5), 1098–1108 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Morales, J., Martinez, J., Mandow, A., Pequeno-Boter, A., Garcia-Cerezo, A.: Simplified power consumption modeling and identification for wheeled skid-steer robotic vehicles on hard horizontal ground. In: 2010 IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems (IROS), pp. 4769–4774 (2010)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Parasuraman, R., Kershaw, K., Pagala, P., Ferre, M.: Model based on-line energy prediction system for semi-autonomous mobile robots. In: 2014 5Th international conference on intelligent systems, modelling and simulation (ISMS), pp. 411–416 (2014)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pentzer, J., Brennan, S., Reichard, K.: On-Line estimation of vehicle motion and power model parameters for skid-steer robot energy use prediction. In: American control conference (ACC), 2014, pp. 2786–2791 (2014)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Prassler, E., Kosuge, K.: Domestic robots. In: Siciliano, B., Khatib, O. (eds.) Springer handbook of robotics, pp. 1253–1281. Springer, Berlin (2008)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Reeds, J.A., Shepp, L.A.: Optimal paths for a car that goes both forwards and backwards. Pacific J. Math. 145(2), 367–393 (1990)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ryu, S.W., Lee, Y.H., Kuc, T.Y., Ji, S.H., Moon, Y.S.: A search and coverage algorithm for mobile robot. In: 2011 8Th international conference on ubiquitous robots and ambient intelligence (URAI), pp. 815–821 (2011)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sadrpour, A., Jin, J., Ulsoy, A.: Mission energy prediction for unmanned ground vehicles. In: 2012 IEEE international conference on robotics and automation (ICRA), pp. 2229–2234 (2012)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sadrpour, A., Jin, J., Ulsoy, A.: Experimental validation of mission energy prediction model for unmanned ground vehicles. In: American control conference (ACC), 2013, pp. 5960–5965 (2013)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wei Yu, E.C., Chuy, O.: Dynamic modeling and power modeling of robotic skid-steered wheeled vehicles. In: Gacovski, D.Z. (ed.) Mobile robots - current trends. INTECH Open Access Publisher (2011)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yang, S.X., Luo, C.: A neural network approach to complete coverage path planning. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Part B Cybern. 34(1), 718–724 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yu, W., Chuy, O., Collins, E.G.J., Hollis, P.: Analysis and experimental verification for dynamic modeling of a skid-steered wheeled vehicle. IEEE Trans. Robot. 26(2), 340–353 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Systems and Robotics, Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

Personalised recommendations