Advertisement

A Distributed Blackboard Approach Based Upon a Boundary Node Concept

  • Jeremy Straub
Article

Abstract

An architecture for distributed decision making and command / control, which is based on an extrapolation of the Blackboard architectural style, is presented. The proposed architecture utilizes boundary rules as connection / coordination points between multiple blackboards, allowing a distributed knowledge base to span multiple physical systems, while minimizing data duplication and data replication communications. When a boundary node is asserted, this is replicated to all other blackboards containing this node. Network state update information is, thus, limited to updating boundary node status and updates regarding system status (i.e., a system being detected by other systems as offline or back online, etc.). This paper provides an overview of the proposed architecture and its implementation. It describes several possible implementation scenarios for the proposed concept and compares its performance, under a theoretical scenario, to other distributed command / control approaches. Through this work, the efficacy of the proposed technique is demonstrated, from a communications requirement reduction perspective.

Keywords

Distributed control Blackboard architecture Autonomous control Expert system 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Fink, W., Tarbell, M.A., Furfaro, R., Powers, L., Kargel, J.S., Baker, V.R., Lunine, J.: Robotic test bed for autonomous surface exploration of titan, mars, and other planetary bodies. In: 2011 IEEE Aerospace Conference. doi: 10.1109/AERO.2011.5747267 (2011)
  2. 2.
    Hayes-Roth, B.: A blackboard architecture for control. Artif. Intell. 26(3), 251–321 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lesser, V.R., Erman, L.D.: A retrospective view of the hearsay-II architecture. In: IJCAI (1977)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lesser, V., Fennell, R., Erman, L., Reddy, D.: Organization of the HEARSAY II speech understanding system. IEEE Trans. Acoust. Speech Signal Process. 23(1), 11–24 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Waterman, D.: A Guide to Expert Systems (1986)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Johnson, M.V. Jr, Hayes-Roth, B.: Integrating diverse reasoning methods in the BBP blackboard control Architecture1. In: Proceedings of the AAAI (1987)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xu, H., Van Brussel, H.: A behaviour-based blackboard architecture for reactive and efficient task execution of an autonomous robot. Robot. Auton. Syst. 22(2), 115–132 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rubin, S.H., Smith, M.H., Trajkovic, L.: A blackboard architecture for countering terrorism. In: IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2003 (2003)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shahbazian, E., Duquet, J., Valin, P.: A blackboard architecture for incremental implementation of data fusion applications. In: FUSION (1998)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Benzmüller, C., Sorge, V.: A blackboard architecture for guiding interactive proofs. In: Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, and Applications Anonymous (1998)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Laliberty, T.J., Hildum, D.W., Sadeh, N.M., McA’Nulty, J., Kjenstad, D., Bryant, R.V., Smith, S.F.: A blackboard architecture for integrated process planning/production scheduling. In: Proceedings of ASME Design for Manufacturing (1996)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hull, J.J., Srihari, S.N., Cohen, E., Kuan, L., Cullen, P., Palumbo, P.: A blackboard-based approach to handwritten zip code recognition. In: 9th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 1988. (1988)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chu, H.: A blackboard-based decision support framework for testing client/server applications. In: Third World Congress on Software Engineering (WCSE), 2012 (2012)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Davis, D.N., Taylor, C.J.: Blackboard architecture for medical image interpretation. In: Medical Imaging V: Image Processing (1991)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Compatangelo, E., Vasconcelos, W., Scharlau, B.: The ontology versioning manifold at its genesis: A distributed blackboard architecture for reasoning with and about ontology versions. Technical report (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Compatangelo, E., Vasconcelos, W., Scharlau, B.: Managing ontology versions with a distributed blackboard architecture. In: Research and Development in Intelligent Systems XXI Anonymous (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kerminen, A., Jokinen, K.: Distributed dialogue management in a blackboard architecture. In: Proceedings of Workshop on Dialogue Systems: Interaction, Adaptation and Styles of Management. 10th Conference of the EACL (2003)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Turunen, M., Hakulinen, J.: Agent-based adaptive interaction and dialogue management architecture for speech applications. In: Text, Speech and Dialogue (2001)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jurado, F., Redondo, M.A., Ortega, M.: Blackboard architecture to integrate components and agents in heterogeneous distributed eLearning systems: An application for learning to program. J. Syst. Softw. 85(7), 1621–1636 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Weiss, M., Stetter, F.: A hierarchical blackboard architecture for distributed AI systems. In: Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, 1992 (1992)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Talukdar, S.N., Cardozo, E., Leao, L.: TOAST: The power system operators assistant. Computer (United States) 19(7) (1986)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Palma, J., Marín, R., Balsa, M., Barro, S., Félix, P.: A control model for distributed blackboard architecture based on task structures. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Engineering of Intelligent Systems. EIS’98 (1998)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Adler, R.M.: A hierarchical distributed control model for coordinating intelligent systems. Telematics Inf. 8(4), 385–402 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jiang, Y., Xia, Z., Zhong, Y., Zhang, S.: An adaptive adjusting mechanism for agent distributed blackboard architecture. Microprocess. Microsyst. 29(1), 9–20 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Botti, V., Barber, F., Crespo, A., Onaindia, E., García-Fornes, A., Ripoll, I., Gallardo, D., Hernández, L.: A temporal blackboard for a multi-agent environment. Data Knowl. Eng. 15(3), 189–211 (1995)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jiang, Y., Zhang, S.: Applying multi-medians location and steiner tree methods into agents distributed blackboard architecture construction. In: AI 2004: Advances in Artificial Intelligence Anonymous (2005)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Larner, D.L.: A distributed, operating system based, blackboard architecture for real-time control. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Industrial and Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems-Volume 1 (1990)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Saxena, M.K., Biswas, K., Bhatt, P.: Knowledge representation in distributed blackboard architecture—Some issues. In: Knowledge Based Computer Systems Anonymous (1990)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    McLeish, M., Cecile, M., Lopez-Suarez, A.: Using a blackboard architecture in a distributed DBMS environment: An expert system application. In: Statistical and Scientific Database Management Anonymous (1990)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Velthuijsen, H., Lippolt, B., Vonk, J.: A parallel blackboard architecture. In: Proceedings of 3rd International Expert Systems Conference (1987)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    van Liere, R., Harkes, J., De Leeuw, W.: A distributed blackboard architecture for interactive data visualization. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Visualization’98 (1998)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tait, R.J., Schaefer, G., Hopgood, A.A., Nolle, L.: Automated visual inspection using a distributed blackboard architecture. Int. J. Simul. Man Cybern. 7(3), 12–20 (2006)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tait, R.J., Schaefer, G., Hopgood, A.A., Nolle, L.: Defect detection using a distributed blackboard architecture. In: Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Modelling and Simulation (2005)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tait, R.J., Schaefer, G., Hopgood, A.A., Nakashima, T.: High performance medical image registration using a distributed blackboard architecture. In: IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Image and Signal Processing, 2007. CIISP 2007 (2007)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tait, R.J., Schaefer, G., Hopgood, A.A., Zhu, S.Y.: Efficient 3-d medical image registration using a distributed blackboard architecture. In: 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2006. EMBS’06 (2006)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Star, S.L.: This is not a boundary object: Reflections on the origin of a concept. Sci. Technol. Hum. Values 35(5), 601–617 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Straub, J., Reza, H.: The use of the blackboard architecture for a decision making system for the control of craft with various actuator and movement capabilities. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations (2014)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of North DakotaGrand ForksUSA

Personalised recommendations