Advertisement

Networking Issues for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

  • Eric W. Frew
  • Timothy X. Brown
Article

Abstract

This paper explores networking issues that arise as a result of the operational requirements of future applications of small unmanned aircraft systems. Small unmanned aircraft systems have the potential to create new applications and markets in civil domains, enable many disruptive technologies, and put considerable stress on air traffic control systems. The operational requirements lead to networking requirements that are mapped to three different conceptual axes that include network connectivity, data delivery, and service discovery. The location of small UAS networking requirements and limitations along these axes has implications on the networking architectures that should be deployed. The delay-tolerant mobile ad-hoc network architecture offers the best option in terms of flexibility, reliability, robustness, and performance compared to other possibilities. This network architecture also provides the opportunity to exploit controlled mobility to improve performance when the network becomes stressed or fractured.

Keywords

Unmanned aircraft system UAS Airborne communication networks Controlled mobility Heterogeneous unmanned aircraft system Mobile ad-hoc networking Delay tolerant networking 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Federal Aviation Administration: order 7610.4k. Special military operations (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Federal Aviation Administration: meeting the challenge: unmanned aircraft systems. In: Federal Aviation Administration R&D Review, vol. 4 (2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Federal Aviation Administration: title 14 code of federal regulations (14 cfr) part 91 (2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beard, R., McLain, T., Nelson, D., Kingston, D., Johanson, D.: Decentralized cooperative aerial surveillance using fixed-wing miniature UAVs. Proc. I.E.E.E. 94(7), 1306–24 (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    van Blyenburgh, P.: Unmanned Aircraft Systems: The Global Perspective. UVS International, Paris, France (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brown, T.X., Henkel, D.: On controlled node mobility in delay-tolerant networks of unmanned aerial vehicles. In: Proc. of Intl Symposium on Advanced Radio Technologies, Boulder, CO (2006)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brown, T.X., Argrow, B.M., Frew, E.W., Dixon, C., Henkel, D., Elston, J., Gates, H.: Experiments using small unmanned aircraft to augment a mobile ad hoc network. In: Bing, B. (ed.) Emerging Technologies in Wireless LANs: Theory, Design, and Deployment, chap. 28, pp. 123–145. Cambridge University Press (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cerf, V.G., Burleigh, S.C., Durst, R.C., Fall, K., Hooke, A.J., Scott, K.L., Torgerson, L., Weiss, H.S.: Delay-Tolerant Network Architecture. Internet Draft, IETF (2006)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Claus Christmann, H., Johnson, E.N.: Design and implementation of a self-configuring ad-hoc network for unmanned aerial systems. In: Collection of Technical Papers - 2007 AIAA InfoTech at Aerospace Conference, vol. 1, pp. 698–704. Rohnert Park, CA (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Corrigan, C.E., Roberts, G., Ramana, M., Kim, D., Ramanathan, V.: Capturing vertical profiles of aerosols and black carbon over the Indian Ocean using autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss 7, 11,429–11,463 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Curry, J.A., Maslanik, J., Holland, G., Pinto, J.: Applications of aerosondes in the arctic. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 85(12), 1855–1861 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dixon, C., Frew, E.W.: Decentralized extremum-seeking control of nonholonomi vehicles to form a communication chain. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 369. Springer-Verlag (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dixon, C., Henkel, D., Frew, E.W., Brown, T.X.: Phase transitions for controlled mobility in wireless ad hoc networks. In: AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, Keystone, CO (2006)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    EUROCONTROL/FAA: Future Communications Study Operational Concepts and Requirements Team: communications operating concept and requirements (COCR) for the future radio system. Tech. Rep. 1.0 (2006)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fall, K.: A delay-tolerant network architecture for challenged internets. In: SIGCOMM ’01, pp. 27–34 (2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Frew, E.W., Dixon, C., Elston, J., Argrow, B., Brown, T.X.: Networked communication, command, and control of an unmanned aircraft system. AIAA Journal of Aerospace Computing, Information, and Communication 5(4), 84–107 (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Harvey, D.J., Lu, T.F., Keller, M.A.: Comparing insect-inspired chemical plume tracking algorithms using a mobile robot. IEEE Trans. Robot. 24(2), 307–317 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Henkel, D., Brown, T.X.: Optimizing the use of relays for link establishment in wireless networks. In: Proc. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), Hong Kong (2008a)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Henkel, D., Brown, T.X.: Towards autonomous data ferry route design through reinforcement learningi. In: Autonomic and Opportunistic Communications Workshop (2008b)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Henriksen, S.J.: Estimation of future communications bandwidth requirements for unmanned aircraft systems operating in the national airspace system. In: AIAA InfoTech@Aerospace, vol. 3, pp. 2746–2754. Rohnert Park, CA (2007)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    How, J., King, E., Kuwata, Y.: Flight demonstrations of cooperative control for uav teams. In: AIAA 3rd ”Unmanned-Unlimited” Technical Conference, Workshop, and Exhibit, vol. 1, pp. 505–513. Chicago, IL (2004)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jenkins, A., Henkel, D., Brown, T.X.: Sensor data collection through gateways in a highly mobile mesh network. In: IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, pp. 2786–2791. Hong Kong, China (2007)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lamb, G.S., Stone, T.G.: Air combat command concept of operations for endurance unmanned aerial vehicles. Web page, http://www.fas.org/irp/doddir/usaf/conops_uav/ (1996)
  24. 24.
    MLB Company: MLB Company—The Bat. http://www.spyplanes.com/bat3.html (2008)
  25. 25.
    Mohammad, A.J., Frost, V., Zaghloul, S., Prescott, G., Braaten, D.: Multi-channel Iridium communication system for polar field experiments. In: International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), vol. 1, pp. 121–124. Anchorage, AK (2004)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    NOAA: NOAA News Online: NOAA and partners conduct first successful unmanned aircraft hurricane observation by flying through Ophelia. http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/s2508.htm (2005)
  27. 27.
    Office of the Secratary of Defense: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Roadmap: 2005–2030 (2005)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ryan, A., Xiao, X., Rathinam, S., Tisdale, J., Zennaro, M., Caveney, D., Sengupta, R., Hedrick, J.K.: A modular software infrastructure for distributed control of collaborating UAVs. In: AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference, Keystone, CO (2006)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sofge, E.: Houston cops test drone now in Iraq, operator says. Web page, http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/air_space/4234272.html (2008)
  30. 30.
    Taub, B., Schilling, D.L.: Principles of Communication Systems. McGraw-Hill, New York (1986)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vaglienti, B., Hoag, R., Niculescu, M.: Piccolo systrem user’s guide: software v2.0.4 with piccolo command center (pcc). http://www.cloudcaptech.com/resources_autopilots.shtm#downloads (2008)
  32. 32.
    Wagner, B.: Civilian market for unmanned aircraft struggles to take flight. In: National Defense Magazine (2007)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Weibel, R., Hansman, R.J.: Safety considerations for operation of unmanned aerial vehicles in the national airspace system. Tech. Rep. ICAT 2005-01 (2006)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zajkowski, T., Dunagan, S., Eilers, J.: Small UAS communications mission. In: Eleventh Biennial USDA Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Conference, Salt Lake City, UT (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Aerospace Engineering Sciences DepartmentUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA
  2. 2.Interdisciplinary Telecommunications Program Electrical and Computer Engineering DepartmentUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations