Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 553–562 | Cite as

Solving production scheduling with earliness/tardiness penalties by constraint programming

  • Jan KelbelEmail author
  • Zdeněk Hanzálek


This paper deals with an application of constraint programming in production scheduling with earliness and tardiness penalties that reflects the scheduling part of the Just-In-Time inventory strategy. Two scheduling problems are studied, an industrial case study problem of lacquer production scheduling, and also the job-shop scheduling problem with earliness/tardiness costs. The paper presents two algorithms that help the constraint programming solver to find solutions of these complex problems. The first algorithm, called the cost directed initialization, performs a greedy initialization of the search tree. The second one, called the time reversing transformation and designed for lacquer production scheduling, reformulates the problem to be more easily searchable when the default search or the cost directed initialization is used. The conducted experiments, using case study instances and randomly generated problem instances, show that our algorithms outperform generic approaches, and on average give better results than other nontrivial algorithms.


Production scheduling Earliness/tardiness cost Constraint programming 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Control Engineering, Faculty of Electrical EngineeringCzech Technical University in PraguePraha 2Czech Republic

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