Journal of Intelligent Information Systems

, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp 115–135 | Cite as

Bag-based data models for incomplete information and their closure properties

  • Akinari Yamaguchi
  • Shougo Shimizu
  • Yasunori Ishihara
  • Toru Fujiwara


In most practical database applications, incompleteness and duplication of facts should be carefully handled. We propose bag-based data models for incomplete information, called V-bags, CV-bags, GV-bags, and CGV-bags. In V-bags, incompleteness is represented by variables like C-tables by Imielinski and Lipski. GV-bags are a supermodel of V-bags, where global conditions that restrict assignments over variables are attached. CV-bags and CGV-bags are submodels of V-bags and GV-bags, respectively, where the usage of variables for representing the number of duplication of tuples is somewhat restricted. We also investigate the closure properties of forward and inverse algebraic operations (selection, projection, product, union, difference, and unique) on each of the data models under both CWA and OWA. Among these data models, CGV-bags have the most closed operations.


Bag Data model Incomplete information Closure property 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akinari Yamaguchi
    • 1
  • Shougo Shimizu
    • 2
  • Yasunori Ishihara
    • 1
  • Toru Fujiwara
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate School of Information Science and TechnologyOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Computer and Media TechnologiesHiroshima City UniversityHiroshimaJapan

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