Journal of International Entrepreneurship

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 121–155 | Cite as

Typology of diaspora entrepreneurship: Case studies in Uzbekistan

  • Maria Elo


The characteristics and importance of transnational diasporans as entrepreneurs for the economy and international business of emerging countries have remained underexplored. This paper addresses types of diaspora entrepreneurship (DE) theoretically and empirically in the context of Uzbekistan. Diaspora entrepreneurship is often seen as necessity-driven and less opportunity-driven. So far, emerging Central-Asian countries are considered countries of origin (COOs) of diasporans, but not yet as countries wherein diasporans want to invest and work, that is, countries of residence (CORs). Uzbekistan is also a post-Soviet economy with limited tradition on private entrepreneurship. Thus, the paper asks what makes people become entrepreneurs in emerging countries such as Uzbekistan when they have alternative opportunities in developed countries. It explores key drivers and socio-cultural reasons for the entry and establishment decision and introduces a typology of DE. This multiple case study presents implications and findings on culturally different entrepreneurs who have decided to enter Uzbek business elucidating their motivations and role in transition economies.


Diaspora entrepreneurship Typology Transition economy Uzbekistan Entry drivers Transnational diaspora 


Die Charakteristika und die Bedeutung der transnationalen Diasporans als Unternehmer für die Wirtschaft und das internationale Geschäft in den Schwellenländern sind inadäquat erforscht geblieben. Dieses Papier befasst Arten von Diaspora Unternehmertum (DE) theoretisch und empirisch im Kontext von Usbekistan. Diaspora Unternehmertum wird häufig betrachtet als Notwendigkeit-getrieben und weniger durch Chancen. Bisher Zentralasiatischen Schwellenländer werden als Herkunftsländer (COOs)von Diasporans betrachtet, aber noch nicht als Aufenthaltsländern (CORS) in welchen die Diasporans investieren und leben möchten. Daher wird hier gefragt, was die Menschen zu Unternehmern in Schwellenländern wie Usbekistan treibt, wenn sie alternative Möglichkeiten in entwickelten Ländern haben. Zusätzlich, Usbekistan ist ein Post-Sowjetische Ökonomie mit begrenzten Tradition für private Unternehmertum. Die Studie erforscht Schlüsselfaktoren und soziokulturelle Gründe für die Markteintritt und Gründungsentscheidung, und präsentieren einer Typologie der DE. Diese Mehrfachfallstudie präsentiert Auswirkungen und Ergebnisse zu kulturell verschiedene Unternehmer, die sich entschieden haben usbekischen Unternehmer zu werden, die klärt ihre Beweggründe auf, und ihre Rolle in den Transformationsländern.


Diaspora Unternehmertum Typologie Übergangswirtschaft Usbekistan Markteintritt-Treiber transnationale Diaspora 

JEL Classification

F22 F21 J15 D01 H30 O29 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Turku School of EconomicsUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Institute of MigrationTurkuFinland

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