Journal of International Entrepreneurship

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 121–134 | Cite as

Linking international entrepreneurship to uncertainty, opportunity discovery, and cognition

  • John E. ButlerEmail author
  • Robert Doktor
  • Frederick A. Lins


In this paper, we suggest a model of international entrepreneurship that links cognition, noticing opportunities, absorbing uncertainty, and bearing uncertainty, to international entrepreneurial action, which is important because of the increased interest in international entrepreneurship. The ways in which cognition affects opportunity identification are discussed to show how international entrepreneurs’ cognitive processes work in terms of identifying opportunities. We also explore the role of cultural differences, with respect to tolerance for bearing uncertainty, on international entrepreneurship. Finally, the model is used to identify areas for future international entrepreneurship research.


Uncertainty Cognition Opportunity noticing Discovery Creativity International entrepreneurship 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • John E. Butler
    • 1
    Email author
  • Robert Doktor
    • 1
  • Frederick A. Lins
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ManagementShilder College of BusinessHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.August Enterprises Inc.4410 Pahoa Ave.HonoluluUSA

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