Journal of Insect Conservation

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 373–382 | Cite as

Cultural homegarden management practices mediate arthropod communities in Indonesia

  • Manuel Toledo-Hernández
  • Lisa H. Denmead
  • Yann Clough
  • Rika Raffiudin
  • Teja Tscharntke


Tropical forest loss and transformation to agroecosystems have serious impacts on biodiversity, associated ecosystem services and the livelihood of local people. The high crop plant biodiversity and low intensity management in many homegardens could play an important role in the preservation of biodiversity in modified landscapes, as well as sustain food security of low income households. In this study, we focused on the role of the owner’s cultural background as migrants (from the island of Java) or non-migrants (local residents) for homegarden characteristics, such as size, management diversification, and crop species richness, and their effect on arthropod communities in Jambi province, Indonesia. Vane traps, pitfall traps and sweep netting were used to survey the arthropod communities, in particular bees and wasps, in 24 homegardens. Our results show that the native Jambi locals used a smaller number of management practices and had smaller homegardens than the Javanese transmigrants, whereas crop species richness did not differ. Management diversification and crop species richness were positively related to arthropod abundance as well as species richness of bees and wasps, presumably due to the enhanced homegarden heterogeneity. Our findings suggest that the cultural practices of migrant versus non-migrant land-use managers, which is usually neglected in agroecology, can be a major determinant of management practices shaping community structure and services of beneficial arthropods.


Biodiversity Ecosystem services Hymenoptera Indonesia Bees Wasps Migrants versus non-migrants Garden 



We thank Patrick, Winda, Rico, Derly and Juwita for all their help in the lab and the field. We thank the village leaders and local homegarden owners for granting us the use of their properties. This study was financed by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) in the framework of the collaborative German—Indonesian research project CRC (Collaborative Research Centre) 990: Ecological and Socioeconomic Functions of Tropical Lowland Rainforest Transformation Systems (Sumatra, Indonesia). MTH was supported by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) during the manuscript writing.

Supplementary material

10841_2016_9871_MOESM1_ESM.doc (127 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 127 kb)


  1. Altieri MA (1999) The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems. Agric Ecosyst Environ 74:19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnes AD, Jochum M, Mumme S, Haneda NF, Farajallah A, Widarto TH, Brose U (2014) Consequences of tropical land use for multitrophic biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Nat Commun 5:5351CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Benton TG, Vickery JA, Wilson JD (2003) Farmland biodiversity: Is habitat heterogeneity the key? Trends Ecol Evol 18:182–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burnham KP, Anderson DR (2002) Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretic approach. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Connell JH (1978) Diversity in tropical rain forest and coral reefs. Science 199:1302–1310CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Crutsinger GM, Collins MD, Fordyce JA, Gompert Z, Nice CC, Sanders NJ (2006) Plant genotypic diversity predicts community structure and governs an ecosystem process. Science 313:966–968CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Deguines N, Jono C, Baude M, Julliard R, Fontaine C (2014) Large-scale trade-off between agricultural intensification and pollination. Front Ecol Environ 12:212–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fahrig L, Baudry L, Brotons L, Burel FG, Crist TO, Fuller RJ, Sirami C, Siriwardena GM, Martin JL (2011) Functional landscape heterogeneity and animal biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Ecol Lett 14:101–112CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Fayle TM, Turner EC, Snaddon JL, Chey VK, Chung AY, Eggleton P, Foster WA (2010) Oil palm expansion into rain forest greatly reduces ant biodiversity in canopy, epiphytes and leaf-litter. Basic Appl Ecol 11:337–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Feintrenie L, Chong WK, Levang P (2010) Why do farmers prefer oil palm? Lessons learnt from Bungo District, Indonesia. Small Scale For 9:379–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fisher BL (1999) Improving inventory efficiency: a case study of leaf-litter ant diversity in Madagascar. Ecol Appl 9:714–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Flynn DF, Gogol-Prokurat M, Nogeire T, Molinari N, Richers BT, Lin BB, Simpson N, Mayfield MM, DeClerck F (2009) Loss of functional diversity under land use intensification across multiple taxa. Ecol Lett 12:22–33CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Foley JA, DeFries R, Asner GP, Barford C, Bonan G, Carpenter SR, Chapin FS, Coe MT, Daily GC, Gibbs HK, Helkowski JH, Holloway T, Howard EA, Kucharik CJ, Monfreda C, Patz JA, Prentice LC, Ramankutty N, Snyder PK (2005) Global consequences of land use. Science 309:570–574CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Foster WA, Snaddon JL, Turner EC, Fayle TM, Cockerill TD, Ellwood MF, Broad GR, Chung AYC, Eggleton P, Khen CV, Yusah KM (2011) Establishing the evidence base for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in the oil palm landscapes of South East Asia. Philos Trans R Soc B 366:3277–3291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goulet H, Huber JT (1993) Hymenoptera of the world: an identification guide to families. Agriculture Canada Publication, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  16. Haddad NM, Haarstad J, Tilman D (2000) The effects of long-term nitrogen loading on grassland insect communities. Oecologia 124:73–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hansen MC, Stehman SV, Potapov PV, Arunarwati B, Stolle F, Pittman K (2009) Quantifying changes in the rates of forest clearing in Indonesia from 1990 to 2005 using remotely sensed data sets. Environ Res Lett 4:034001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hosonuma N, Herold M, De Sy V, De Fries RS, Brockhaus M, Verchot L, Romijn E (2012) An assessment of deforestation and forest degradation drivers in developing countries. Environ Res Lett 7:044009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Isaacs R, Tuell J, Fiedler A, Gardiner M, Landis D (2008) Maximizing arthropod-mediated ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes: the role of native plants. Front Ecol Environ 7:196–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jose D, Shanmugaratnam N (1993) Traditional homegardens of Kerala: a sustainable human ecosystem. Agrofor Syst 24:203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kehlenbeck K, Maass BL (2004) Crop diversity and classification of homegardens in Central Sulawesi Indonesia. Agrofor Syst 63:53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Klein AM, Steffan-Dewenter I, Tscharntke T (2002) Predator-prey ratios on cocoa along a landscape gradient in Indonesia. Biodivers Conserv 11:683–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Klein A-M, Vaissiere BE, Cane JH, Steffan-Dewenter I, Cunningham SA, Kremen C, Tscharntke T (2007) Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proc R Soc A 274:303–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kumar BM, Nair PR (2004) The enigma of tropical homegardens. Agrofor Syst 61:135–152Google Scholar
  25. Kumar BM, Nair PKR (2007) Tropical homegardens: a time-tested example of sustainable agroforestry. Advances in agroforestry, vol 3. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  26. Landis DA, Wratten SD, Gurr GM (2000) Habitat management to conserve natural enemies of arthropod pests in agriculture. Annu Rev Entomol 45:175–201CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Larsen TH, Williams NM, Kremen C (2005) Extinction order and altered community structure rapidly disrupt ecosystem functioning. Ecol Lett 8:538–547CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lawton JH, Strong DR Jr (1981) Community patterns and competition in folivorous insects. Am Nat 118:317–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lemessa D, Hambäck PA, Hylander K (2015) The effect of local and landscape level land-use composition on predatory arthropod in a tropical agricultural landscape. Landsc Ecol 30:167–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Margono BA, Potapov PV, Turubanova S, Stolle F, Hansen MC (2014) Primary forest cover loss in Indonesia over 2000–2012. Nat Clim Change 4:730–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Márquez ARC, Schwartz NB (2008) Traditional home gardens of Petén Guatemala: resource management, food security, and conservation. J Ethnobiol 28:305–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Matson PA, Parton WJ, Power AG, Swift MJ (1997) Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties. Science 277:504–509CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Mohri H, Lahoti S, Saito O, Mahalingam A, Gunatilleke N, Hoang VT, Hitinayake G, Takeuchi K, Herath S (2013) Assessment of ecosystem services in homegarden systems in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Ecosyst Serv 5:124–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Murdiyarso D, Noordwijk MV, Wasrin UR, Tomich TP, Gillison AN (2002) Environmental benefits and sustainable land-use options in the Jambi transect, Sumatra. J Veg Sci 13:429–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Priess JA, Mimler M, Klein A-M, Schwarze S, Tscharntke T, Steffan-Dewenter I (2007) Linking deforestation scenarios to pollination services and economic returns in coffee agroforestry systems. Ecol Appl 17:407–417CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. R Core Team (2013) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0. http://www.R-projectorg/
  37. Raintree JB, Warner K (1986) Agroforestry pathways for the intensification of shifting cultivation. Agrofor Syst 4:39–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Scales BR, Marsden SJ (2008) Biodiversity in small-scale tropical agroforests: a review of species richness and abundance shifts and the factors influencing them. Environ Conserv 35:160–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Scherber C, Mwangi PN, Temperton VM, Roscher C, Schumacher J, Schmid B, Weisser WW (2006) Effects of plant diversity on invertebrate herbivory in experimental grassland. Oecologia 147:489–500CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Senior MJ, Hamer KC, Bottrell S, Edwards DP, Fayle TM, Lucey JM, Mayhew PJ, Newton R, Peh KS-H, Sheldon FH, Stewart C, Styring AR, Thom MDF, Woodcock P, Hill JK (2013) Trait-dependent declines of species following conversion of rain forest to oil palm plantations. Biodivers Conserv 22:253–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Siemann E, Tilman D, Haarstad J, Ritchie M (1998) Experimental tests of the dependence of arthropod diversity on plant diversity. Am Nat 152:738–750CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Smith RM, Gaston KJ, Warren PH, Thompson K (2006) Urban domestic gardens (VIII): environmental correlation of invertebrate abundance. Biodivers Conserv 15:2515–2545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sodhi NS, Koh LP, Clements R, Wanger TC, Hill JK, Hamer KC, Clough Y, Tscharntke T, Posa MRC, Lee TM (2010) Conserving Southeast Asian forest biodiversity in human-modified landscapes. Biol Conserv 143:2375–2384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Steffan-Dewenter I, Kessler M, Barkmann J, Boss MM, Buchori D, Erasmi S, Faust H, Gerold G, Glenk K, Gradstein SR, Guhardja E, Harteveld M, Hertel D, Hohn P, Kappas M, Kohler S, Leuschner C, Maertens M, Marggraf R, Migge-Kleian S, Mogea J, Pitopang R, Schaefer M, Schwarze S, Sporn SG, Steingrebe A, Tjitrosoedirdjo SS, Tjitrosoedirdjo S, Twele A, Weber R, Woltmann L, Zeller M, Tscharntke T (2007) Tradeoffs between income, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning during tropical rainforest conversion and agroforestry intensification. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:4973–4978CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Stephen WP, Rao S (2007) Sampling native bees in proximity to a highly competitive food resource (Hymenoptera: Apiformes). J Kans Entomol Soc 80:369–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Trinh LN, Watson JW, Hue NN, De NN, Minh NV, Chu P, Sthapit BR, Eyzaguirre PB (2003) Agrobiodiversity conservation and development in Vietnamese home gardens. Agri Ecosyst Environ 97:317–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tscharntke T, Klein AM, Kruess A, Steffan-Dewenter I, Thies C (2005) Landscape perspectives on agricultural intensification and biodiversity-ecosystem service management. Ecol Lett 8:857–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tscharntke T, Clough Y, Wanger TC, Jackson L, Motzke I, Perfecto I, Vandermeer J, Whitbread A (2012) Global food security, biodiversity conservation, and the future of agricultural intensification. Biol Conserv 151:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tylianakis JM, Tscharntke T, Lewis OT (2007) Habitat modification alters the structure of tropical host–parasitoid food webs. Nature 445:202–205CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Vasseur C, Joannon A, Aviron S, Burel F, Meynard J-M, Baudry J (2013) The cropping systems mosaic: how does the hidden heterogeneity of agricultural landscapes drive arthropod populations? Agric Ecosyst Environ 166:3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vazquez-Garcia V (2008) Gender, ethnicity, and economic status in plant management: uncultivated edible plants among the Nahuas and Popolucas of Veracruz Mexico. Agric Human Values 25:65–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ward DF, New TR, Yen AL (2001) Effects of pitfall trap spacing on the abundance, richness and composition of invertebrate catches. J Insect Conserv 5:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yardım EN, Edwards CA (2003) Effects of organic and synthetic fertilizer sources on pest and predatory insects associated with tomatoes. Phytoparasitica 31:324–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhang W, Ricketts TH, Kremen C, Carney K, Swinton SM (2007) Ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. Ecol Econ 64:253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manuel Toledo-Hernández
    • 1
  • Lisa H. Denmead
    • 1
  • Yann Clough
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rika Raffiudin
    • 3
  • Teja Tscharntke
    • 1
  1. 1.AgroecologyGeorg-August-Universität GöttingenGöttingenGermany
  2. 2.Centre for Environmental and Climate ResearchLund UniversityLundSweden
  3. 3.Department of BiologyBogor Agricultural University (IPB)BogorIndonesia

Personalised recommendations