Advertisement

Journal of Insect Conservation

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 55–65 | Cite as

A burning desire for smoke? Sampling insects favoured by forest fire in the absence of fire

  • Per Milberg
  • Karl-Olof Bergman
  • Henrik Norman
  • Roger B. Pettersson
  • Lars Westerberg
  • Lars-Ove Wikars
  • Nicklas Jansson
ORIGINAL PAPER

Abstract

Fire-favoured insects are difficult to sample except opportunistically after forest fires. Here, we tested if smoke from a small fire could be an efficient way to sample such insects. Insects were sampled over ca. 10 h hours, by hand-picking and netting on screens put up around the fire. Two specimens of the rare and redlisted Hormopeza spp. (Diptera, Empididae) were caught. Large numbers (>20,000) of Microsania spp. (Diptera, Platypezidae) were caught, but none in the absence of smoke. The numbers of Microsania spp. clearly peaked in late afternoon, and a short sampling period would be sufficient if targeting only this taxon. Of the almost 200 species of Coleoptera, 17 % were considered as fire-favoured, contributing 9 % of the specimens, suggesting low efficiency of the method for this group. Using 23 sites differing in fire history, catches of Microsania spp. were unaffected by numbers and area of forest fire (preceding 5 years and within 10 km radius over the sampling sites). In contrast, there was a weak trend for the proportion of fire-favoured Coleoptera to increase with increasing number of fires. To conclude, smoke as produced in our study can clearly attract fire-favoured Diptera, but smoke had only a weak effect on fire-favoured Coleoptera in the study area. It is still likely that selectively picking specimens of species attracted to smoke is a more cost-efficient method than using, e.g., Malaise traps that catch indiscriminately.

Keywords

Coleoptera Diptera Netting Opportunistic Sampling method Sweden 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Rickard Andersson and Stig Lundberg (identification of Coleoptera), Ingemar Struwe (identification of Dipteria), Usman Muhammadi (help in the laboratory), Klas Andersson (fire data), Fia Sundin (GIS data), and Linnea Norman (illustration). Financial support was provided by the County Administrative Board of Östergötland.

References

  1. Ahnlund H, Viklund B, Wikars L-O (2006) Insekterna. I: Pettersson U (ed) Branden i Tyresta 1999. Dokumentation av effekterna. sid. 81–107. Naturvårdsverket. Dokumentation av de svenska nationalparkerna nr. 20 (in Swedish)Google Scholar
  2. Amaral SS, de Carvalho Junior JA, Costa MAM, Neto TGS, Dellani R, Leite LHS (2014) Comparative study for hardwood and softwood forest biomass: chemical characterization, combustion phases and gas and particulate matter emissions. Bioresour Technol 164:55–63CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersson K, Bergman K-O, Andersson F, Hedenström E, Jansson N, Burman J, Winde I, Larsson MC, Milberg P (2014) High-accuracy sampling of saproxylic diversity indicators at regional scales with pheromones: the case of Elater ferrugineus (Coleoptera, Elateridae). Biol Conserv 171:156–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ångström-Balla G (2006) Skogsbränder i Östergötland—frekvens, substratsbildning samt analys av brandberoende skalbaggars möjlighet att överleva. Undergraduate thesis in biology, Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Linköping University, LiU-IFM-Biol-Ex-8/1899-SE (in Swedish)Google Scholar
  5. Artdatabanken (2009a) Artfakta—Hormopeza copulifera. http://www.artfakta.se/Artfaktablad/Hormopeza_Copulifera_232161.pdf (in Swedish). (Accessed 1 May 2012)
  6. Artdatabanken (2009b) Artfakta—Hormopeza obliterata. http://www.artfakta.se/Artfaktablad/Hormopeza_Obliterata_101083.pdf (in Swedish). (Accessed 1 May 2012)
  7. Brown KJ, Giesecke T (2014) Holocene fire disturbance in the boreal forest of central Sweden. Boreas 43:639–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brues CT (1950) Vespid wasps (Eumenes curvata) attracted to smoke. Psyche 57:114–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chandler PJ (1978) Some dipterous opportunists at Windsor Forest, Berks: the attractions for flies of bonfires, wood ash and freshly cut logs. Entomol Gaz 29:253–257Google Scholar
  10. Cox DR, Snell EJ (1989) Analysis of binary data, vol 32. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  11. Evans WG (1966) Perception of infrared radiation from forest fires by Melanophila acuminata de Geer (Buprestidae, Coleoptera). Ecology 47:1061–1065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Forsslund A, Johansson N, Hedin J, Johansson T, Jansson N, Nordlind E (2011) Brandgynnade arter i sydöstra Sverige. Länsstyrelsen Kalmar Län, Länsstyrelserna Meddelande nr 2011:16. 90 p (in Swedish)Google Scholar
  13. Glas AS, Lijmer JG, Prins MH, Bonsel GJ, Bossuyt PM (2003) The diagnostic odds ratio: a single indicator of test performance. J Clin Epidemiol 56:1129–1135CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gonçalves C, Alves C, Evtyugina M, Mirante F, Pio C, Caseiro A, Schmidl C, Bauer H, Carvalho F (2010) Characterisation of PM10 emissions from woodstove combustion of common woods grown in Portugal. Atmos Environ 44:4474–4480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Granström A (2001) Fire management for biodiversity in the European boreal forest. Scand J For Res 16(S3):62–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Granström A, Schimmel J (1993) Heat effects on seeds and rhizomes of a selection of boreal forest plants and potential reaction to fire. Oecologia 94:307–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hjältén J, Gibb H, Ball JP (2010) How will low-intensity burning after clear-felling affect mid-boreal insect assemblages? Basic Appl Ecol 11:363–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ingvarson K, Rova J, Forsslund A, Borehag M, Unell M, Nordlind E (2012) Strategi för naturvårdsbränning i sydöstra Sveriges skyddade skogsområden år 2012-2022. Bakgrund, analys och genomförande. Länsstyrelserna Meddelande nr 2012:13. 72 p (in Swedish)Google Scholar
  19. Jefferson LV, Pennacchio M, Havens-Young K (2014) Ecology of plant-derived smoke: its use in seed germination. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  20. Johansson T, Hjältén J, Stenbacka F, Dynesius M (2010) Responses of eight boreal flat bug (Heteroptera: aradidae) species to clear-cutting and forest fire. J Insect Conserv 14:3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Johansson T, Andersson J, Hjältén J, Dynesius M, Ecke F (2011) Short-term responses of beetle assemblages to wildfire in a region with more than 100 years of fire suppression. Insect Conserv Diver 4:142–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Johansson T, Hjältén J, de Jong J, von Stedingk H (2013) Environmental considerations from legislation and certification in managed forest stands: a review of their importance for biodiversity. For Ecol Manag 303:98–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kistler M, Schmidl C, Padouvas E, Giebl H, Lohninger J, Ellinger R, Bauer H, Puxbaum H (2012) Odor, gaseous and PM10 emissions from small scale combustion of wood types indigenous to Central Europe. Atmos Environ 51:86–93Google Scholar
  24. Klocke D, Schmitz A, Schmitz H (2011) Fire-adaptation in Hypocerides nearcticus Borgmeier and Anabarhynchus hyalipennis hyalipennis Marquart and new notes about the Australian “smoke fly” Microsania australis Collart (Diptera: phoridae, Therevidae and Platypezidae). Open Entomol J 5:10–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lundberg S (1984) The beetle fauna of burnt forest in Sweden. Entomol Tidskr 105:129–141Google Scholar
  26. Lundberg S (1995) Catalogus coleopterorum Sueciae. Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  27. Milberg P, Bergman K-O, Johansson H, Jansson N (2014) Low host-tree preferences among saproxylic beetles: a comparison of four deciduous species. Insect Conserv Divers 7:508–522Google Scholar
  28. Musa N, Andersson K, Burman J, Andersson F, Hedenström E, Jansson N, Paltto H, Westerberg L, Winde I, Larsson MC, Bergman K-O, Milberg P (2013) Using sex pheromone and a multi-scale approach to predict the distribution of a rare saproxylic beetle. PLoS One 8(6):e66149CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Niklasson M, Granström A (2000) Numbers and sizes of fires: long-term spatially explicit fire history in a Swedish boreal landscape. Ecology 81:1484–1499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Niklasson M, Zin E, Zielonka T, Feijen M, Korczyk AF, Churski M, Samojlik T, Jędrzejewska B, Gutowski J, Brzeziecki B (2010) A 350-year tree-ring fire record from Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland: implications for Central European lowland fire history. J Ecol 98:1319–1329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ohsawa M (2010) Beetle families as indicators of Coleopteran diversity in forests: a study using Malaise traps in the central mountainous regions of Japan. J Insect Conserv 14:479–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pettersson RB , Ball JP (2011) Anlockningsbrand för rökdansfluga (Hormopeza obliterata Zett.) i Västerbottens län 2006. In: Pettersson RB (ed) Inventeringar av brandgynnade insekter i Västerbottens län 2005-2006. Länsstyrelsen Västerbotten Meddelande nr 8, pp 65–75 (in Swedish)Google Scholar
  33. Ranius T, Jansson N (2002) A comparison of three methods to survey saproxylic beetles in hollow oaks. Biodiv Conserv 11:1759–1771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ranius T, Bohman P, Hedgren O, Wikars L-O, Caruso A (2014) Metapopulation dynamics of a beetle species confined to burned forest sites in a managed forest region. Ecography 37:797–804Google Scholar
  35. Risberg L, Granström A (2012) Seed dynamics of two fire-dependent Geranium species in the boreal forest of southeastern Sweden. Botany 90:794–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Saint-Germain M, Drapeau P, Buddle CM (2008) Persistence of pyrophilous insects in fire-driven boreal forests: population dynamics in burned and unburned forests. Diver Distrib 14:713–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schütz S, Weissbecker B, Hummel HE, Apel KH, Schmitz H, Bleckmann H (1999) Insect antenna as a smoke detector. Nature 398:298–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sinclair BJ, Cumming JM (2006) The morphology, higher-level phylogeny and classification of the Empidoidea (Diptera). Zootaxa 1180:1–172Google Scholar
  39. Snoddy E, Tippins H (1968) On the ecology of a smoke fly, Microsania imperfect. Ann Entomol Soc Am 61:1200–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sullivan BT, Fettig CJ, Otrosina WJ, Dalusky MJ, Berisford CW (2003) Association between severity of prescribed burns and subsequent activity of conifer-infesting beetles in stands of longleaf pine. For Ecol Manag 185:327–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wikars L-O (1992) Forest fires and insects. Entomol Tidskr 113:1–11Google Scholar
  42. Wikars L-O (1997) Pyrophilous insects in Orsa Finnmark, Central Sweden: biology, distribution, and conservation. Entomol Tidskr 118:155–169Google Scholar
  43. Wikars L-O (2002) Dependence of fire in wood-living species: an experiment with burned and unburned spruce and birch logs. J Insect Conserv 6:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wikars L-O (2006) Åtgärdsprogram för bevarande av brandinsekter i boreal skog. Naturvårdsverket Rapport 5610, 78 pp. http://www.naturvardsverket.se/Om-Naturvardsverket/Publikationer/ISBN/5600/91-620-5610-7/
  45. Ylisirniö A-L, Penttilä R, Berglund H, Hallikainen V, Isaeva L, Kauhanen H, Koivula M, Mikkola K (2012) Dead wood and polypore diversity in natural post-fire succession forests and managed stands: lessons for biodiversity management in boreal forests. For Ecol Manag 286:16–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zackrisson O (1977) Influence of forest fires on the North Swedish boreal forest. Oikos 29:22–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Per Milberg
    • 1
  • Karl-Olof Bergman
    • 1
  • Henrik Norman
    • 1
  • Roger B. Pettersson
    • 2
  • Lars Westerberg
    • 1
  • Lars-Ove Wikars
    • 3
  • Nicklas Jansson
    • 1
  1. 1.IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology GroupLinköping UniversityLinköpingSweden
  2. 2.Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental StudiesSLUUmeåSweden
  3. 3.BorlängeSweden

Personalised recommendations