Journal of Insect Conservation

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 549–556 | Cite as

Evaluation of secondary forests as alternative habitats to primary forests for flower-visiting insects

  • Hisatomo Taki
  • Hiroshi Makihara
  • Takeshi Matsumura
  • Motohiro Hasegawa
  • Toshiya Matsuura
  • Hiroshi Tanaka
  • Shun’ichi Makino
  • Kimiko Okabe


Although primary forests are important for biological conservation, the value of secondary forests for forest-dependent organisms needs to be evaluated when habitat restoration is required. We examined whether flower-visiting insects can use secondary forests as alternative habitats to primary forests. In particular, we compared assemblages of bees (Anthophila) and flower longhorn beetles (Lepturinae: Cerambycidae) in young secondary, mature secondary, and primary forests. Our results showed that more bee species were captured in primary and mature secondary forests than in young secondary forests, and flower longhorn beetle species were captured more frequently in primary forests than in mature and young secondary forests. Ordination showed that the communities in the three forest types were not statistically identical, which indicated that secondary forests cannot provide an absolute alternative habitat to primary forests for bees and flower longhorn beetles. However, the results also suggest that as secondary forests mature, more primary forest species would be able to use secondary forests as habitats. This implies that restoration from other land uses, such as monoculture plantations, to secondary forests could help to promote the faunal biodiversity of primary forests.


Apoidea Cerambycidae Pollinator Hymenoptera Coleoptera Lepturinae 



We thank T Kitajima for caring for insect samples. We also thank K Maeto, N Tanaka, K Sugimura and H Masuya for assistance during field sampling of insects, and S Sugiura and Y Yamaura for comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. This study was supported by research funds of Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute and the Global Environment Research Funds (E-0801 and S-9) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hisatomo Taki
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Makihara
    • 1
  • Takeshi Matsumura
    • 2
  • Motohiro Hasegawa
    • 1
  • Toshiya Matsuura
    • 3
  • Hiroshi Tanaka
    • 4
  • Shun’ichi Makino
    • 1
  • Kimiko Okabe
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forest EntomologyForestry and Forest Products Research InstituteTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.NasushiobaraJapan
  3. 3.Department of Forest ManagementForestry and Forest Products Research InstituteTsukubaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Forest VegetationForestry and Forest Products Research InstituteTsukubaJapan

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