Journal of Insect Conservation

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 281–293 | Cite as

Contrasting needs of grassland dwellers: habitat preferences of endangered steppe beetles (Coleoptera)

  • Lukas Cizek
  • David Hauck
  • Pavel Pokluda


Temperate grasslands are local biodiversity hotspots. In Europe, their extent was mostly reduced to isolated habitat patches, whose biota is subject to extinction debt. Knowledge on requirements of dry-grassland inhabitants is thus vital to slow down decline of grassland biodiversity. We studied habitat requirements of eight flightless steppe beetles, including some of the most endangered dry-grassland specialists of the continent. The beetles were sampled using 167 pitfall traps at a pannonian dry-grassland fragment, the Pouzdrany steppe, SE Czech Republic, from March to November 2006. The number of each species captures in each trap was related to vegetation and abiotic habitat characteristics; captures of all beetles were related to each other. Two of the studied species required relatively humid microhabitats, including tall-grass steppe with litter (Carabus hungaricus, Carabidae) and grassland of high herb cover (Meloe proscarabaeus, Meloidae). Others were associated with xeric habitats (e.g. Meloe scabriusculus) and their early-successional stages, including short-turf vegetation (Dorcadion fulvum, D. pedestre, Cerambycidae) and/or bare-ground patches (Blaps lethifera, Tenebrionidae; Meloe decorus, M. uralensis). Our findings point to key importance of early-successional vegetation for grassland biodiversity, and to the fact that locally co-occurring and closely related grassland specialists may exhibit contrasting habitat needs. Spatially and temporarily highly diversified patch management creating a fine scale mosaic of various seral stages from bare soil to tall-grass steppe is therefore the most appropriate approach for managing isolated grasslands. Prescribed burning and support of burrowing herbivores are recommended and discussed together with other measures for restoration of habitat diversity in dry-grassland fragments.


Blister beetle Carpathian Basin Darkling beetle Ground beetle Habitat selection Longhorn beetle 



We thank to K. Chobot and J. Mourek for support; J. Dovala for assistance with field work; M. Konvička for manuscript review; P. Bogusch, J. Lepš, J. Miklín, S. Poláková, P. Saska, and M. Sweney for assistance with other aspects of the study; two anonymous reviewers for valuable comments to the article. The study was supported by the Czech Ministry of Education (6007665801, LC06073) and the Agency for Nature Conservation and Landscape Protection of the Czech Republic.


  1. Adamová M (1988) Geochemické zhodnocení sedimentů pouzdřanské jednotky.— Geochemical evaluation of the Pouzdřany unit sediments. J Geol Sci Geol 43:193–242 (in Czech)Google Scholar
  2. Andersen UV (1995) Resistance of Danish coastal vegetation types to human trampling. Biol Conserv 71:223–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arndt E, Trautner J (2004) Carabini. In: Müller-Motzfeld G (ed) Band 2. Adephaga 1: Carabidae (Laufkäfer). In: Freude H, Harde KW, Lohse GA, Klausnitzer B (eds) Die Käfer Mitteleuropas, 2. Auflage. Spektrum, Heidelberg, Berlin, pp 30–60 (in German)Google Scholar
  4. Atkinson PW, Buckingham D, Morris AJ (2004) What factors determine where invertebrate-feeding birds forage in dry agricultural grasslands? Ibis 146:99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Badenhausser I, Amouroux P, Lerin J, Bretagnolle V (2009) Acridid (Orthoptera: Acrididae) abundance in Western European grasslands: sampling methodology and temporal fluctuations. J Appl Entomol 133:720–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balmer O, Erhardt A (2000) Consequences of succession on extensively grazed grasslands for Central European butterfly communities: rethinking conservation practices. Conserv Biol 14:746–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baur B, Zschokke S, Coray A, Schlapfer M, Erhardt A (2002) Habitat characteristics of the endangered flightless beetle Dorcadion fuliginator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): implications for conservation. Biol Conserv 105:133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baur B, Coray A, Minoretti N, Zschokke S (2005) Dispersal of the endangered flightless beetle Dorcadion fuliginator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in spatially realistic landscapes. Biol Conserv 124:49–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bell JR, Wheater CP, Cullen WR (2001) The implications of grassland and heathland management for the conservation of spider communities: a review. J Zool 255:377–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beneš J, Konvička M, Dvořák J, Fric Z, Havelda Z, Pavlíčko A, Vrabec V, Weidenhoffer Z (2002) Butterflies of the Czech Republic: distribution and conservation I, II. SOM, Prague (in Czech, English summaries)Google Scholar
  11. Bérces S, Szél G, Ködöböcz V, Kutasi C (2008) The distribution, habitat, and the nature conservation value of a Natura 2000 beetle, Carabus hungaricus Fabricius, 1792 in Hungary. In: Penev L, Erwin T, Assmann T (eds) Back to the roots and back to the future. Towards a New Synthesis between Taxonomic, Ecological and Biogeographical Approaches in Carabidology. Proceedings of the XIII European Carabidologists Meeting, Blagoevgrad, August 20–24, 2007. Pensoft Series Faunistica No. 75. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, Moscow, pp 363–372Google Scholar
  12. Binot M, Bless R, Boye P, Gruttke H, Pretscher P (eds) (1998) Rote Liste gefährdeter Tiere Deutschlands. Schriftenreihe für Landschaftspflege und Naturschutz 55, Bonn-Bad Godesberg (in German)Google Scholar
  13. Bologna MA (1991) Coleoptera Meloidae. Fauna d′Italia, vol XXVIII. Calderini, BolognaGoogle Scholar
  14. Borhidi A (1995) Social behaviour types, the naturalness and relative ecological indicator values of the higher plants in the Hungarian Flora. Acta Bot Hung 39:97–181Google Scholar
  15. Borkowski J (2004) Distribution and habitat use by red and roe deer following a large forest fire in South-western Poland. Forest Ecol Manag 201:287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Borodin AM et al. (eds) (1984) Krasnaya kniga SSSR, 2nd edn. Lesnaya Promyshlennost’ Publishers, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  17. Bourn NAD, Thomas JA (2002) The challenge of conserving grassland insects at the margins of their range in Europe. Biol Conserv 104:285–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brereton TM, Warren MS, Roy DB, Stewart K (2008) The changing status of the Chalkhill Blue butterfly Polyommatus coridon in the UK: the impacts of conservation policies and environmental factors. J Insect Conserv 12:629–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chytry M, Danihelka J, Ermakov N, Hájek M, Hájková P, Kubešová S, Lustyk P, Otýpková Z, Popov D, Roleček J, Řezníčková M, Šmarda P, Valachovič D (2007) Plant species richness in continental southern Siberia: effects of pH and climate in the context of the species pool hypothesis. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 16:668–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chytry M, Hejcman M, Hennekens SM, Schellberg J (2009) Changes in vegetation types and Ellenberg indicator values after 65 years of fertilizer application in the Rengen Grassland Experiment, Germany. Appl Veg Sci 12:167–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Clark JA, May RM (2002) Taxonomic bias in conservation research. Science 297:191–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cornwell WK, Grubb PJ (2003) Regional and local patterns in plant species richness with respect to resource availability. Oikos 100:417–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cremene C, Groza G, Rakosy L, Schileyko AA, Baur A, Erhardt A, Baur B (2005) Alterations of steppe-like grasslands in Eastern Europe: a threat to regional biodiversity hotspots. Conserv Biol 19:1606–1618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Davies ZG, Wilson RJ, Brereton TM, Thomas CD (2005) The re-expansion and improving status of the silver-spotted skipper butterfly (Hesperia comma) in Britain: a metapopulation success story. Biol Conserv 124:189–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. de Bello F, Lavorel S, Gerhold P, Reier Ü, Pärtel M (2010) A biodiversity monitoring framework for practical conservation of grasslands and shrublands. Biol Conserv 143:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. di Giulio A, Bologna MA, Pinto JD (2002) Larval morphology of the Meloe subgenus Mesomeloe: inferences on its phylogenetic position and a first instar larval key to the Meloe subgenera (Coleoptera, Meloidae). Ital J Zool 69:339–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dúbravková D, Chytrý M, Willner W, Eszter I, Janišová M, Kállayné Szerényi J (2010) Dry grasslands in the Western Carpathians and the northern Pannonian basin: a numerical classification. Preslia 82:165–221Google Scholar
  28. Dvořák M (1983) Majkovití brouci Československa (Coleoptera, Meloidae), klíče k určování hmyzu 4. Zprávy Československé Spol Entoml ČSAV, Supplementum. Moravské tiskařské závody, Olomouc (in Czech)Google Scholar
  29. Dvořák M, Vrabec V (2007) Meloidae. Folia Heyrovskyana, Icones Insectorum Europae Centralis, No. 6. Kabourek, ZlínGoogle Scholar
  30. Dvořák D, Roleček J, Fajmon K (2008) A recent record of the predatory bush cricket Saga pedo Pallas, 1771, in the Pouzdřanská step Steppe (southern Moravia). Acta Mus Morav Sci Biol 93:7–9Google Scholar
  31. Ellenberg H, Weber HE, Düll R, Wirth V, Werner W, Paulissen D (1992) Zeigerwerte von Pflanzen in Mitteleuropa, 2nd edn. Scr Geobot, vol 18, pp 1–258 (in German, English summary)Google Scholar
  32. Farkač J, Král D, Škorpík M (eds) (2005) Červený seznam ohrožených druhů České republiky. Bezobratlí.—Red list of threatened species in the Czech Republic. Invertebrates. Agentura ochrany přírody a krajiny ČR, Prague (in Czech)Google Scholar
  33. Fellendorf M, Mohra C, Paxton RJ (2004) Devastating effects of river flooding to the ground-nesting bee, Andrena vaga (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae), and its associated fauna. J Insect Conserv 8:311–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ferrer J, Picka J (1990) The Blaps species of Sweden, with a review of the B. lethifera group (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Entomol Tidskr 111:25–32Google Scholar
  35. Gepp J (ed) (1994) Rote listen gefährdeter Tiere Österreichs. Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Jungend und Familie, Graz (in German)Google Scholar
  36. Gregory S, Wright I (2005) Creation of patches of bare ground to enhance the habitat of ground-nesting bees and wasps at Shotover Hill, Oxfordshire, England. Conserv Evid 2:139–141Google Scholar
  37. Grulich V (2004) Artemisia L.—pelyněk. In: Slavík B, Štěpánková J (eds) Květena České republiky, vol 7. Academia, Praha, pp 163–185 (in Czech)Google Scholar
  38. Hafernik J, Saul-Gershenz L (2000) Beetle larvae cooperate to mimic bees. Nature 405:35–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Harper CA (2007) Strategies for managing early succession habitat for wildlife. Weed Technol 21:932–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hoekstra JM, Boucher TM, Ricketts TH, Roberts C (2005) Confronting a biome crisis: global disparities of habitat loss and protection. Ecol Lett 8:23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Holuša J, Kočárek P (2005) Orthoptera (rovnokřídlí). In: Farkač J, Král D, Škorpík M (eds) Červený seznam ohrožených druhů České republiky. Bezobratlí.—Red list of threatened species in the Czech Republic. Invertebrates. Agentura ochrany přírody a krajiny ČR, Prague, pp 133–134Google Scholar
  42. Horváth F, Dobolyi ZK, Morschhauser T, Lökös L, Karas L, Szerdahelyi T (1995) FLÓRA adatbázis 1.2—Taxonlista és attribútum-állomány. Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Vácrátót (in Hungarian)Google Scholar
  43. Hulová Š, Sedláček F (2008) Population genetic structure of the European ground squirrel in the Czech Republic. Conserv Genet 9:615–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hůrka K (1996) Carabidae of the Czech and Slovak Republics.—Carabidae České a Slovenské republiky. Kabourek, ZlínGoogle Scholar
  45. Käfer J, Witte J-PM (2004) Cover-weighted averaging of indicator values in vegetation analyses. J Veg Sci 15:647–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Knight G (1995) The connection between Meloe proscarabaeus and Anthophora retusa along the Pembrokeshire coast. Bull Amat Entomol Soc 54:222–226Google Scholar
  47. Konvička M, Beneš J, Čížek L (2005) Ohrožený hmyz nelesních stanovišť: ochrana a management. Sagittaria, Olomouc (in Czech)Google Scholar
  48. Konvička M, Beneš J, Čížek O, Kopeček F, Konvička O, Víťaz L (2008) How too much care kill species: grassland reserves, agri-environmental schemes and extinction of Colias myrmidone (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) from its former stronghold. J Insect Conserv 12:519–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lepš J, Šmilauer P (2003) Multivariate analysis of ecological data using CANOCO. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  50. Lückmann J (2005) The courtship behavior of Meloe decorus Brandt and Erichson and Sitaris muralis Foerster (Coleoptera: Meloidae). Coleopts Bull 59:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lückmann J, Niehuis M (2009) Die Ölkäfer in Rheinland-Pfalz und im Saarland: Verbreitung, Phänologie, Ökologie, Situation und Schutz. Fauna und Flora in Rheinland-Pfalz, Beiheft 40. Gesellschaft für Naturschutz und Ornithologie Rheinland-Pfalz e. V. (GNOR), Mainz (in German)Google Scholar
  52. Lückmann J, Scharf S (2004) Description of the first instar larvae of three species of Meloe with a key to the triungulins of Central European species of this genus (Coleoptera: Meloidae). Eur J Entomol 101:313–322Google Scholar
  53. Mackovčin P, Jatiová M, Demek J, Slavík P (eds) (2007) Brněnsko. In: Mackovčin P (ed) Chráněná území ČR, svazek IX. Agentura ochrany přírody a krajiny ČR a EkoCentrum Brno, Praha, pp 1–932 (in Czech)Google Scholar
  54. Maindonald JH, Braun WJ (2003) Data analysis and graphics using R. An example-based approach. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  55. Möllenbeck V, Hermann G, Fartmann T (2009) Does prescribed burning mean a threat to the rare satyrine butterfly Hipparchia fagi? Larval-habitat preferences give the answer. J Insect Conserv 13:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nagumanova NG (2007) Spatial differentiation of invertebrates in soils of the Transural Steppe Region. Entomol Rev 87:692–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Novák V (2007) Tenebrionidae. Folia Heyrovskyana, Icones Insectorum Europae Centralis, No. 8. Kabourek, ZlínGoogle Scholar
  58. Pärtel M, Helm A, Reitalu T, Liira J, Zobel M (2007) Grassland diversity related to the late Iron Age human population density. J Ecol 95:574–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Picka J (1978) Potemníkovití brouci Československa (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), klíče k určování hmyzu 1. Zprávy Československé Spol Entoml ČSAV, Supplementum. Moravské tiskařské závody, Olomouc (in Czech)Google Scholar
  60. Pokluda P, Hauck D, Čížek L (2011) Importance of marginal habitats for grassland diversity: Fallows and overgrown tall-grass steppe as key habitats of endangered ground-beetle Carabus hungaricus. Insect Conserv Diver (in press)Google Scholar
  61. Pons P, Lambert B, Rigolot E, Prodon R (2003) The effects of grassland management using fire on habitat occupancy and conservation of birds in a mosaic landscape. Biodivers Conserv 12:1843–1860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pöyry J, Lindgren S, Salminen J, Kuussaari M (2004) Restoration of butterfly and moth communities in semi-natural grasslands by cattle grazing. Ecol Appl 14:1656–1670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pykälä J (2000) Mitigating human effects on European biodiversity through traditional animal husbandry. Conserv Biol 14:705–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Read JL, Carter J, Moseby KM, Greenville A (2008) Ecological roles of rabbit, bettong and bilby warrens in arid Australia. J Arid Environ 72:2124–2130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Saarinen K, Jantunen J (2005) Grassland butterfly fauna under traditional animal husbandry: contrasts in diversity in mown meadows and grazed pastures. Biodivers Conserv 14:3201–3213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sama G (2002) Atlas of the Cerambycidae of Europe and the mediterranean area, vol 1, Northern, Western, Central and Eastern Europe. British Isles and Continental Europe from France (excl. Corsica) to Scandinavia and Urals. Kabourek, ZlínGoogle Scholar
  67. Samways MJ, Kreuzinger K (2001) Vegetation, ungulate and grasshopper interactions inside vs. outside an African savanna game park. Biodivers Conserv 10:1963–1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schaffers AP, Sýkora KV (2000) Reliability of Ellenberg indicator values for moisture, nitrogen and soil reaction: a comparison with field measurements. J Veg Sci 11:225–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schaub M, Martinez N, Tagmann-Ioset A, Weisshaupt N, Maurer ML, Reichlin TS, Abadi F, Zbinden N, Jenni L, Arlettaz R (2010) Patches of bare ground as a staple commodity for declining ground-foraging insectivorous farmland birds. PLoS ONE. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0013115
  70. Schläpfer M, Zoller H, Körner C (1998) Influences of mowing and grazing on plant species composition in calcareous grassland. Bot Helv 108:57–67Google Scholar
  71. Schmidt MH, Rocker S, Hanafi J, Gigon A (2008) Rotational fallows as overwintering habitat for grassland arthropods: the case of spiders in fen meadows. Biodivers Conserv 17:3003–3012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Shcherbak MM (ed) (1994) Tservona Kniga Ukraini. Travinnij Svit. Ukrainska Encyclopedia, Kiev (in Ukrainian)Google Scholar
  73. Sláma MEF (1998) Tesaříkovití (Cerambycidae) České republiky a Slovenské republiky (Brouci—Coleoptera). Milan Sláma, Krhanice (in Czech)Google Scholar
  74. Stebnicka Z (1987) Klucze do oznaczania owadów Polski. Zeszyt 84. Majkowate—Meloidae. Państwowe wydawnictwo naukove, Warszawa (in Polish)Google Scholar
  75. Stewart GB, Pullin AS (2008) The relative importance of grazing stock type and grazing intensity for conservation of mesotrophic ‘old meadow’ pasture. J Nat Conserv 16:175–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Straka J (2005) Apoidea (včely). In: Farkač J, Král D, Škorpík M (eds) Červený seznam ohrožených druhů České republiky. Bezobratlí.—Red list of threatened species in the Czech Republic. Invertebrates. Agentura ochrany přírody a krajiny ČR, Prague, pp 392–405Google Scholar
  77. Šustek Z (1982) Contribution to the synonymy of Blaps lethifera Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). Acta Entomol Bohemos 79:143–153Google Scholar
  78. Švihla V (1996) Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidea 4 (Oedemeridae, Meloidae and Lagriidae). In: Rozkošný R, Vaňhara J (eds) Terrestrial Invertebrates of the Pálava Biosphere Reserve of UNESCO, III. Folia Fac Sci Nat Un, vol 94, pp 409–630Google Scholar
  79. ter Braak CJF, Šmilauer P (2002) CANOCO reference manual and CanoDraw for windows user′s guide: software for canonical community ordination (version 4.5). Microcomputer Power, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  80. Thomas CD, Jones TM (1993) Partial recovery of a skipper butterfly (Hesperia comma) from population refuges: lessons for conservation in a fragmented landscape. J Anim Ecol 62:472–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Thomas JA, Morris MG, Hambler C (1994) Patterns, mechanisms and rates of extinction among invertebrates in the United Kingdom. Philos T Roy Soc B 344:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Torre I, Díaz M, Martínez-Padilla J, Bonal R, Viñuela J, Fargallo JA (2007) Cattle grazing, raptor abundance and small mammal communities in Mediterranean grasslands. Basic Appl Ecol 8:565–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Van Swaay CAM (2002) The importance of calcareous grasslands for butterflies in Europe. Biol Conserv 104:315–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Van Swaay CAM, Warren M (1999) Red data book of European butterflies (Rhopalocera). Nature and environment, No. 99, Council of Europe Publishing, StrasbourgGoogle Scholar
  85. Van Wieren SE, Bakker JP (1998) Grazing for conservation in the 21st century. In: WallisDeVries MF, Bakker JP, Van Weiren SE (eds) Grazing and conservation management. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 349–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Veselý P (2002) Mohelenská hadcová step—historie vzniku rezervace a jejího výzkumu. Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Brno (in Czech)Google Scholar
  87. Veselý P, Moravec P, Stanovský J (2005) Carabidae (střevlíkovití). In: Farkač J, Král D, Škorpík M (eds) Červený seznam ohrožených druhů České republiky. Bezobratlí.—Red list of threatened species in the Czech Republic. Invertebrates. Agentura ochrany přírody a krajiny ČR, Prague, pp 406–411Google Scholar
  88. Vickery JA, Tallowin JR, Feber RE, Asteraki EJ, Atkinson PW, Fuller RJ, Brown VK (2001) The management of lowland neutral grasslands in Britain: effects of agricultural practices on birds and their food resources. J Appl Ecol 38:647–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vrabec V (1993) A new finding of Meloe decorus (Coleoptera: Meloidae) from Bohemia and several notes on its bionomy. Klapalekiana 29:163–165 (in Czech with English summary)Google Scholar
  90. Vrabec V (2002) Rozšíření druhu Meloe decorus (Coleoptera: Meloidae) v ČR. In: Bryja J, Zukal J (eds) Zoologické dny Brno 2002. Sborník abstraktů z konference 14.–15. února 2002. Ústav biologie obratlovců AVČR, Brno, pp 75–76 (in Czech)Google Scholar
  91. Vrabec V (2005a) Meloidae (majkovití). In: Farkač J, Král D, Škorpík M (eds) Červený seznam ohrožených druhů České republiky. Bezobratlí.—Red list of threatened species in the Czech Republic. Invertebrates. Agentura ochrany přírody a krajiny ČR, Prague, pp 521–522Google Scholar
  92. Vrabec V (2005b) Na okraj červeného seznamu brouků—majkovití. Živa 53:270–272 (in Czech)Google Scholar
  93. Vrabec V (2006) Současné znalosti o rozšírení bežného druhu majky—Meloe proscarabaeus (Coleoptera: Meloidae). In: Bryja J, Zukal J (eds) Zoologické dny Brno 2006. Sborník abstraktů z konference 9.–10. února 2006. Ústav biologie obratlovců AVČR, Brno, pp 127–127 (in Czech)Google Scholar
  94. Vrabec V, Viktora P, Hes O (2001) New findings of Meloe decorus (Coleoptera: Meloidae) in the surroundings of Kolín and Kutná Hora and several remarks on the bionomics, ecology and possibilities of protection of this species. Stud Zprávy Okres Muz Praha-východ 14:155–178 (in Czech, English abstract)Google Scholar
  95. Vsevolodova-Perel’ TS, Sizemskaya ML (2007) Spatial structure of soil macrofauna in the Northern Caspian clay semidesert. Biol Bull 34:629–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. WallisDeVries MF, Raemakers I (2001) Does extensive grazing benefit butterflies in coastal dunes? Restor Ecol 9:179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. WallisDeVries MF, Poschlod P, Willems JH (2002) Challenges for the conservation of calcareous grasslands in northwestern Europe: integrating the requirements of flora and fauna. Biol Conserv 104:265–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wenzel M, Schmitt T, Weitzel M, Seitz A (2006) The severe decline of butterflies on western German calcareous grasslands during the last 30 years: a conservation problem. Biol Conserv 128:542–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Winter SL, Cully JF, Pontius JS (2002) Vegetation of prairie dog colonies and non-colonized short-grass prairie. J Range Manage 55:502–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wirtitsch M, Hoi H, Valera F, Kristin A (2001) Habitat composition and use in the lesser grey shrike Lanius minor. Folia Zool 50:137–150Google Scholar
  101. Wittig B, Richter gen. Kammermann A, Zacharias D (2006) An indicator species approach for result-oriented subsides of ecological services in grasslands—a study in Northwestern Germany. Biol Conserv 133:186–197Google Scholar
  102. Woodcock BA, Pywell RF (2010) Effects of vegetation structure and floristic diversity on detritivore, herbivore and predatory invertebrates within calcareous grasslands. Biodivers Conserv 19:81–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Woodcock BA, Edwards AR, Lawson CS, Westbury DB, Brook AJ, Harris SJ, Brown VK, Mortimer SR (2008) Contrasting success in the restoration of plant and phytophagous beetle assemblages of species-rich mesotrophic grasslands. Oecologia 154:773–783PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of ScienceUniversity of South BohemiaCeske BudejoviceCzech Republic
  2. 2.Institute of EntomologyBiology Centre ASCRCeske BudejoviceCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations