Journal of Insect Conservation

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 47–59 | Cite as

Are we doomed to repeat history? A model of the past using tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) and conservation biology to anticipate the future

Beetle Conservation

Abstract

Studies of conservation biology involving tiger beetles have become increasingly common in the last 15 years. Governments and NGOs in several countries have considered tiger beetles in making policy decisions of national conservation efforts and have found tiger beetles useful organisms for arguing broad conservation issues. We trace the evolution of the relationship between tiger beetle studies and conservation biology and propose that this history may in itself provide a model for anticipating developments and improvements in the ability of conservation biology to find effective goals, gather appropriate data, and better communicate generalizations to non-scientific decision makers, the public, and other scientists. According to the General Continuum of Scientific Perspectives on Nature model, earliest biological studies begin with natural history and concentrate on observations in the field and specimen collecting, followed by observing and measuring in the field, manipulations in the field, observations and manipulations in the laboratory, and finally enter theoretical science including systems analysis and mathematical models. Using a balance of historical and analytical approaches, we tested the model using scientific studies of tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) and the field of conservation biology. Conservation biology and tiger beetle studies follow the historical model, but the results for conservation biology also suggest a more complex model of simultaneous parallel developments. We use these results to anticipate ways to better meet goals in conservation biology, such as actively involving amateurs, avoiding exclusion of the public, and improving language and style in scientific communication.

Keywords

Cicindelidae Conservation biology History Models Tiger beetles 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acemoglu D, Johnson S, Robinson JA (2001) The colonial origins of comparative development: an empirical investigation. Am Econ Rev 91:1369–1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acorn JH (2001) Tiger beetles of Alberta: killers on the clay, stalkers on the sand. Univ. of Alberta Press, Edmonton, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  3. Andelman SJ, Fagan WF (2000) Umbrellas and flagships: efficient conservation surrogates or expensive mistakes? PNAS 97:5954–5959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Andriamampianina L, Kremen C, Vane-Wright D, Lees D, Razafimahatratra V (2000) Taxic richness patterns and conservation evaluation of Madagascan tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). J Insect Cons 4:109–128Google Scholar
  5. Arndt E, Aydin N, Aydin G (2005) Tourism impairs tiger beetle (Cicindelidae) populations—a case study in a Mediterranean beach habitat. J Insect Cons 9:201–206Google Scholar
  6. Ashworth AC (2001) Chp. 8: perspectives on quaternary beetles and climate change. In: Gerhard LC, Harrison BM (eds) Geological perspectives of global climate change. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology #47, Tulsa, Oklahoma, pp 153–168Google Scholar
  7. Avise JC (1994) Molecular markers, natural history and evolution. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Babione M (2003) Bringing tiger beetles together. Endangered Species Bull 28:28–29Google Scholar
  9. Barraclough TG, Vogler AP (2002) Recent diversification rates in North American tiger beetles estimated from a dated mtDNA phylogenetic tree. Mol Biol Evol 19:1706–1716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Barrow MV Jr (1998) A passion for birds: American ornithology after Audubon. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  11. Battalio JT (1998) The rhetoric of science in the evolution of American ornithological phases. ATTW contemporary studies in technical communication, vol. 8. Ablex Publishing Corporation, Stamford, ConnecticutGoogle Scholar
  12. Bauer KL (1991) Observations on the developmental biology of Cicindela arenicola Rumpp (Coleoptera, Cicindelidae). Great Basin Nat 51:226–235Google Scholar
  13. Berglind S-A, Ehnström B, Ljungberg H (1997) Strandskalbaggar, biologisk mångfald och reglering av små vattendrag—exemplen Svartån och Mjällån. Entomologisu Tidskrift 118:137–154Google Scholar
  14. Bossart JL, Carlton CE (2002) Insect conservation in America: status and perspectives. Am Entomol 48:82–92Google Scholar
  15. Brown KS Jr (1991) Conservation of neotropical environments: insects as indicators. In: Collins NM, Thomas JA (eds) Conservation of Insects and their Habitats. Academic Press, London, United Kingdom, pp 349–404Google Scholar
  16. Browne J (1996) Biogeography and empire. In: Jardine N, Secord JA, Spary EC (eds) Cultures of natural history. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pp 305–321Google Scholar
  17. Brust ML (2002) Reintroduction study on Cicindela formosa generosa in Marinette County, Wisconsin. Cicindela 34:5–7Google Scholar
  18. Carroll SS (1998) Modelling abiotic indicators when obtaining spatial predictions of species richness. Environ Ecol Stat 5:257–276Google Scholar
  19. Carroll SS, Pearson DL (1998a) Spatial modeling of butterfly species richness using tiger beetles (Cicindelidae) as a bioindicator taxon. Ecol Appl 8:531–543Google Scholar
  20. Carroll SS, Pearson DL (1998b) The effects of scale and sample size on the accuracy of spatial predictions of tiger beetle (Cicindelidae) species richness. Ecography 21:401–414Google Scholar
  21. Carroll SS, Pearson DL (2000) Detecting and modeling spatial and temporal dependence in conservation biology. Cons Biol 14:1893–1897Google Scholar
  22. Carter M (1990) The idea of expertise: an exploration of cognitive and social dimensions of writing. College Compos Commun 41:265–286Google Scholar
  23. Cassola F (2002) Le cicindele e le coste: biogeografia e conservazione (Studi sui Cicindelidi. CXIX). Biogeographia 23:55–69Google Scholar
  24. Cassola F, Pearson DL (2000) Global patterns of tiger beetle species richness (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae): their use in conservation planning. Biol Cons 95:197–208Google Scholar
  25. Chafe W (1986) Evidentiality in English conversation and academic writing. In: Chafe W, Nichols J (eds) Evidentiality: the linguistic coding of epistemology. Albex Press, Norwood, NJ, pp 261–272Google Scholar
  26. Chew MK, Laubichler MD (2003) Natural enemies: metaphor or misconception? Science 301:52–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Choate PM (2003) Tiger beetles: a field guide and identification manual for Florida and Eastern US. Univ. Press of Florida, Gainesville, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  28. Crandall KA, Bininda-Emonds ORP, Mace GM, Wayne RK (2000) Considering evolutionary processes in conservation biology. Trends Ecol Evol 15:290–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cressie N (1991) Statistics for spatial data. John Wiley, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  30. Czech B, Krausman PR (2001) The endangered species act: history, conservation biology, and public policy. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, MarylandGoogle Scholar
  31. Dale VH, Beyler SC (2001) Challenges in the development and use of ecological indicators. Ecol Indicators 1:3–10Google Scholar
  32. Desender K, Bosmans R (1998) Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) on set-aside fields in the Campine region and their importance for nature conservation in Flanders (Belgium). Biodivers Conserv 7:1485–1493Google Scholar
  33. Desender K, Dufrêne M, Maelfait J-P (1994) Long term dynamics of carabid beetles in Belgium: a preliminary analysis on the influence of changing climate and land use by means of a data base covering more than a century. In: Desender K et al. (eds) Carabid beetles: ecology and evolution. Kulwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pp 247–252Google Scholar
  34. Desender K, Turin H (1989) Loss of habitats and changes in the composition of the ground and tiger beetle fauna in four west European countries since 1950 (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelidae). Biol Cons 48:277–294Google Scholar
  35. Diamond J (2002) Evolution, consequences and future of plant and animal domestication. Nature 418:700–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Diogo AC, Vogler AP, Gimenez A, Gallego D, Galián J (1999) Conservation genetics of Cicindela deserticoloides, an endangered tiger beetle endemic to southeastern Spain. J Insect Cons 3:117–123Google Scholar
  37. Dreisig H (1980) Daily activity, thermoregulation and water loss in the tiger beetle Cicindela hybrida. Oecologia 44:376– 389Google Scholar
  38. Dubois A (2003) The relationships between taxonomy and conservation biology in the century of extinctions. Comptes Rendus Biologies 326(supplement):9–21Google Scholar
  39. Eldredge N (1998) Life in the balance. Humanity and the biodiversity crisis. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJGoogle Scholar
  40. Farber PL (2000) Finding order in nature: The naturalist’s tradition from Linnaeus to E.O. Wilson. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore MarylandGoogle Scholar
  41. Gaddis JL (2004) The landscape of history: how historians map the past. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Galián J, Vogler AP (2003) Evolutionary dynamics of a satellite DNA in the tiger beetle species pair Cicindela campestris and C. maroccana. Genome 46:213–223Google Scholar
  43. Galián J, Serrano J, Ortiz AS (1990) Karyotypes of nine species of Cicindelini and cytotaxonomic notes on Cicindelinae (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Genetica 82:17–24Google Scholar
  44. Gaston KJ, New TR, Samways MJ (1993) Perspectives on insect conservation. Intercept Publ., Andover, Hants, UKGoogle Scholar
  45. Giangrande A (2003) Biodiversity, conservation, and the “taxonomic impediment.” Aquat Conserv-Marine Freshwater Ecosys 13:451–459Google Scholar
  46. Gilbert C (1997) Visual control of cursorial prey pursuit by tiger beetles (Cicindelidae). J Comp Physiol A 181:217–230Google Scholar
  47. Goldstein PZ, Desalle R (2003) Calibrating phylogenetic species formation in a threatened insect using DNA from historical specimens. Mol Ecol 12:1993–1998PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Goldstein PZ, Desalle R, Amato G, Vogler AP (2000) Conservation genetics at the species boundary. Cons Biol 14:120–131Google Scholar
  49. Gopen GD, Swan JA (1990) The science of scientific writing. Am Sci 78:550–558Google Scholar
  50. Gould SJ (1989) Wonderful life: the burgess shale and the nature of history. Norton, New York, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. Greenberg CH, McGrane A (1996) A comparison of relative abundance and biomass of ground-dwelling arthropods under different forest management practices. Forest Ecol Manag 89:31–41Google Scholar
  52. Hadley NF, Schultz TD, Savill A (1988) Spectral reflectances of three tiger beetle subspecies (Neocicindela perhispida): correlation with their habitat substrate. NZ J Zool 15: 343–346Google Scholar
  53. Hibbs DA, Olsson O (2004) Geography, biogeography, and why some countries are rich and others are poor. PNAS USA 101:3715–3720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hoback WW, Podrabsky JE, Higley LG, Stanley DW, Hand SC (2000) Anoxia tolerance of con-familial tiger beetle larvae is associated with differences in energy flow and anaerobiosis. J Comp Physiol B 170:307–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Holeski PM, Graves RC (1978) An analysis of the shore beetle communities of some channelized streams in northwest Ohio (Coleoptera). Great Lakes Entomol 11:23–36Google Scholar
  56. Hopkins GW, Freckleton RP (2002) Declines in the numbers of amateur and professional taxonomists: implications for conservation. Anim Conserv 5:245–249Google Scholar
  57. Horgan FG, Chávez JC (2004) Field boundaries restrict dispersal of a tropical tiger beetle, Megacephala angustata Chevrolet 1841 (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Entomotropica 19:147– 152Google Scholar
  58. Hussein ML-a (2002) Ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) communities of the exhausted open-cast mining area KTMnigsaue and of agricultural areas in the District Aschersleben-sta§furt (Saxony-Anhalt). Arch Phytopathol Plant Protect 35:125–155Google Scholar
  59. Kamoun S (1996) Occurrence of the threatened Cicindela senilis frosti Varas Arangua in an inland salt marsh in Riverside County, California (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Coleop Bull 50:369–371Google Scholar
  60. Killingsworth MJ, Palmer JS (1992) Ecospeak: rhetoric and environmental politics in America. So. Illinois Univ. Press, Carbondale, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  61. Kitching IJ (1996) Identifying complementary areas for conservation in Thailand: an example using owls, hawkmoths and tiger beetles. Biodivers Conserv 5:841–858Google Scholar
  62. Knight J (2003) Scientific literacy: clear as mud. Nature 423: 376–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Knisley CB, Fenster MS (2005) Apparent extinction of the tiger beetle, Cicindela hirticollis abrupta (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae). Coleop Bull 59:451–458Google Scholar
  64. Knisley CB, Hill JM (1992) Effects of habitat change from ecological succession and human impact on tiger beetles. Virginia J Sci 43:134–142Google Scholar
  65. Knisley CB, Hill JM (2001) Biology and conservation of the coral pink sand dunes tiger beetle, Cicindela limbata albissima. West N Am Nat 61:381–394Google Scholar
  66. Knisley CB, Hill JM, Scherer AM (2005) Translocation of threatened tiger beetle Cicindela dorsalis dorsalis (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) to Sandy Hook, New Jersey. Ann Ent Soc Am 98:552–557Google Scholar
  67. Knisley CB, Schultz TD (1997) The biology of tiger beetles and a guide to the species of the South Atlantic States. Virginia Mus Nat Hist, Special Publication No. 5, Martinsville, VirginiaGoogle Scholar
  68. Kremen C (1992) Assessing the indicator properties of species assemblages for natural areas monitoring. Ecol Appl 2: 203–217Google Scholar
  69. Kremen C, Colwell RK, Erwin TL, Murphy DD, Noss RF, Sanjayan MA (1993) Terrestrial arthropod assemblages: their use as indicators in conservation planning. Cons Biol 7:796–808Google Scholar
  70. Lakoff G, Johnson M (1980) Metaphors we live by. Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  71. Lawton JH, Bignell DE, Bolton B, Bloemers GF, Eggleton P, Hammond PM, Hodd M, Holt RD, Larsen TB, Mawdsley NA, Stork NE, Srivastava DS, Watt AD (1998) Biodiversity in inventories, indicator taxa and effects of habitat modification in tropical forest. Nature 391:72–76Google Scholar
  72. Leadbeater C, Miller P (2004) The pro-Am revolution: how enthusiasts are changing our economy and society. Demos Publ., London, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  73. Lees DC, Kremen C, Andriamampianina L (1999) A null model for species richness gradients: bounded range overlap of butterflies and other rainforest endemics in Madagascar. Biol J Linn Soc 67:529–584Google Scholar
  74. Leonard JG, Bell RT (1999) Northeastern tiger beetles: a field guide to tiger beetles of New England and Eastern Canada. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  75. Linné Kv (1758) Systema naturae, ed. 10 (Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata). HolmiaeGoogle Scholar
  76. Maguire LA (1991) Risk analysis for conservation biologists. Cons Biol 5:123–125Google Scholar
  77. Mawdsley JR (2005) Extirpation of a population of Cicindela patruela Dejean (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelini) in suburban Washington, DC, USA. Proc Entomol Soc Wash 107:64–70Google Scholar
  78. Maienschein J (2000) Why study history for science? Biol Philos 15:339–348Google Scholar
  79. McGeoch MA (1998) The selection, testing and application of terrestrial insects as bioindicators. Biol Rev 73:181–201Google Scholar
  80. Meine C (1999) It’s about time: conservation biology and history. Cons Biol 13:1–3Google Scholar
  81. Mittermeier RA, Gil PR, Hoffmann M, Pilgrim J, Brooks T, Mittermeier CG, Lamoreux J, Da Fonseca G (2004) Hotspots revisted: earth’s biologically richest and most endangered terrestrial ecosystems. CEMEX, Mexico City, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  82. Mittermeier R, Mittermeier CG (1997) Megadiversity: earth’s biologically wealthiest nations. CEMEX, Mexico City, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  83. Morgan M, Knisley CB, Vogler AP (2000) New taxonomic status of the endangered tiger beetle Cicindela limbata albissima (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae): evidence from mtDNA. Ann Entomol Soc Am 93:1108–1115Google Scholar
  84. Moritz C, (1994) Defining “Evolutionary Significant Units” for conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 9:373–375Google Scholar
  85. Murphy DD, Freas KE, Weiss SB (1990) An environment-metapopulation approach to population viability analysis for a threatened invertebrate. Cons Biol 4:41–51Google Scholar
  86. Myers N (1989) A major extinction spasm: predictable and inevitable? In: Western D, Pearl MC (eds) Conservation for the twenty-first century. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, pp 42–49Google Scholar
  87. Nagano CD (1980) Population status of the tiger beetles of the genus Cicindela (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) inhabiting the marine shoreline of Southern California. Atala 8:33–42Google Scholar
  88. New TR (1984) Insect conservation: an australian perspective. Dordrecht Publ., Hingham, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  89. New TR (1991) Butterfly conservation. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  90. New TR (1998) Invertebrate surveys for conservation. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  91. Noss RF (1990) Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: a hierarchical approach. Cons Biol 4:355–364Google Scholar
  92. Nye MJ (1996) Before big science: the pursuit of modern chemistry and physics, 1800–1940. Twayne Publishers, New York, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  93. Okamura J-Y, Toh Y (2004) Morphological and physiological identification of medulla interneurons in the visual system of the tiger beetle larva. J Comp Physiol A 190:449–468Google Scholar
  94. Omland KS (2002) Larval habitat and reintroduction site selection for Cicindela puritana in Connecticut. Northeastern Nat 9:433–450Google Scholar
  95. Omland KS (2004) Puritan tiger beetle (Cicindela puritana) on the Connecticut River: habitat management and translocation alternatives. In: Akçakaya HR, Burgman MA, Kindvall O, Wood CC, Sjögren-Gulve P, Hatfield JS, McCarthy MA (eds) Species conservation and management: case studies. Oxford Univ. Press, London, pp 137–148Google Scholar
  96. Pearson DL (1994) Selecting indicator taxa for the quantitative assessment of biodiversity. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 345:75–79Google Scholar
  97. Pearson DL (1988) Biology of tiger beetles. Ann Rev Entomol 33:123–147Google Scholar
  98. Pearson DL (2004) A list of suggested common English names for species of tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) occurring in Canada and the US. Cicindela 36:31–39Google Scholar
  99. Pearson DL, Carroll SS (1998) Global patterns of species richness: spatial models for conservation planning using bioindicators and precipitation. Cons Biol 12:809–821Google Scholar
  100. Pearson DL, Carroll SS (1999) The influence of spatial scale on cross-taxon congruence patterns and prediction accuracy of species richness. J Biogeog 26:1079–1090Google Scholar
  101. Pearson DL, Carroll SS (2001) Predicting patterns of tiger beetle (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) species richness in northwestern South America. Stud Neotrop Fauna Environ 36:123– 134Google Scholar
  102. Pearson DL, Cassola F (1992) World-wide species richness patterns of tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae): indicator taxon for biodiversity and conservation studies. Cons Biol 6:376–391Google Scholar
  103. Pearson DL, Cassola F (2005) A quantitative analysis of species descriptions of tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae), from 1758 to 2004, and notes about related developments in biodiversity studies. Coleop Bull 59:184–193Google Scholar
  104. Pearson DL, Knisley CB, Kazilek CJ (2005) A field guide to the tiger beetles of the United States and Canada: identification, natural history and distribution of the cicindelids. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  105. Pearson DL, Shetterly JA (2006) How do published field guides influence interactions between amateurs and professionals in entomology? Am Entomol 52. In pressGoogle Scholar
  106. Pearson DL, Vogler AP (2001) Tiger beetles: the evolution, ecology and diversity of the cicindelids. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  107. Pons J, Barraclough TG, Theodorides K, Cardoso A, Vogler AP (2004) Using exon and intron sequences of the gene Mp20 to resolve basal relationships in Cicindela (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Syst Biol 53:554–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Primack RB (2002) Essentials of conservation biology, 3rd edn. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  109. Proença SJR, Galián J (2003) Chromosome evolution in the genus Cicindela: physical mapping and activity of rDNA loci in the tiger beetle species Cicindela littoralis and C. flexuosa. J Zool Syst Evol Res 41:227–232Google Scholar
  110. Proença SJR, Serrano ARM, Collares-Pereira J (2002) An unusual karyotype with low chromosome number in Megacephalini, a basal group of tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Cicindelidae): cytogenetic characterisation by C-banding and location of rDNA genes. Hereditas 137:202–207Google Scholar
  111. Pyle R, Bentzien M, Opler P (1981) Insect conservation. Ann Rev Entomol 26:233–258Google Scholar
  112. Richoux P (2001) Sensibilité de Cylindera arenaria aux aménagements fluviaux: l’example de la région lyonnaise (Coléptères Cicindelidae). Cahiers scientifique Mus.d’Histoire nat. Lyon 2:63–74Google Scholar
  113. Ricketts TH, Dinerstein E, Olson DM, Loucks C (1999) Who’s where in North America? Patterns of species richness and the utility of indicator taxa for conservation. Bioscience 49:369–381Google Scholar
  114. Rivers-Moore NA, Samways MJ (1996) Game and cattle tramping, and impacts of human dwellings on arthropods at␣a game park boundary. Biodivers Conserv 5:1545– 1556Google Scholar
  115. Rodríguez JP, Pearson DL, Barrera RR (1998) A test for the adequacy of bioindicator taxa: are tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) appropriate indicators for monitoring the degradation of tropical forests in Venezuela? Biol Cons 83:69–76Google Scholar
  116. Rolett B, Diamond J (2004) Environmental predictors of pre-European deforestation on Pacific Islands. Nature 431: 443–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Rudolph VJ (2003) Modifying forest management for biodiversity. Cons Biol 17:1463–1571Google Scholar
  118. Samways MJ (1994) Insect conservation biology. Chapman and Hall, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  119. Samways MJ (2005) Insect diversity conservation. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  120. Satoh A, Sota T, Uéda T, Enokido Y, Paik§ C, Hori M (2004) Evolutionary history of coastal tiger beetles in Japan based on a comparative phylogeography of four species. Mol Ecol 13:3057–3069PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Schultz TD (1988) Destructive effects of off-road vehicles on tiger beetle habitat in central Arizona. Cicindela 20:25–29Google Scholar
  122. Schwartz MW (1999) Choosing the appropriate scale of reserves for conservation. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 30:83–108Google Scholar
  123. Shelford R (1902) Observations on some mimetic insects and spiders from Borneo and Singapore. Proc Zool Soc London 1902:230–284Google Scholar
  124. Shelford VE (1907) Preliminary note on the distribution of the tiger beetles (Cicindela) and its relation to plant succession. Biol Bull Marine Biol Lab, Woods Hole 14:9–14Google Scholar
  125. Short DC (2000) Analysing metaphor in human resource development. Human Resour Devel Int 3:323–341Google Scholar
  126. Siemann W (eds) (2003) Umweltgeschichte: Themen und Perspektiven. Verlag C. H. Beck oHG, Munich, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  127. Sikes DS (2002) Beetles of Block Island: rare species that once occurred on the mainland, Chapter 11. In: Paton PW, Gould LL, August PV, Frost AO (eds) The ecology of Block Island: proceedings of the Rhode Island natural history survey conference, October 28, 2000. Rhode Island Natural History Survey, Kingston, RI, pp 183–191Google Scholar
  128. Sorensen WC (1995) Brethren of the net: American entomology 1840–1880. Univ. of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, AlabamaGoogle Scholar
  129. Trautner J (1996) Historische und aktuelle Bestandssituation des Sandlaufkäfers Cicindela arenaria Fuesslin, 1775 in Deutschland (Col., Cicindelidae). Entomol Nact Berichte 40: 83–88Google Scholar
  130. USDI (1980) Habitat evaluation procedures (HEP). Ecological services manual number 102. Division of Ecological Services, USDI. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  131. Van Dooren TJM, Matthysen E (2004) Generalized linear models for means and variances applied to movements of tiger beetles along corridor roads. J Anim Ecol 73: 261–271Google Scholar
  132. Vogler AP, Knisley CB, Glueck SB, Hill JM, Desalle R (1993) Using molecular and ecological data to diagnose endangered populations of the Puritan Tiger Beetle Cicindela puritana. Mol Ecol 2:375–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Vogler AP (1998) Extinction and the evolutionary process in endangered species: what to conserve? In: DeSalle R, Schierwater B (eds) Molecular approaches to ecology and evolution. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland, pp 191–210Google Scholar
  134. Vogler AP, DeSalle R (1994) Diagnosing units of conservation management. Cons Biol 8:354–363Google Scholar
  135. Wickham HF (1904) The influence of the mutations of the Pleistocene lakes upon the present distribution of Cicindela. Am. Nat. 38:643–654Google Scholar
  136. Wilson EO (2000) On the future of conservation biology. Cons Biol 14:1–3Google Scholar
  137. Yarbrough WW, Knisley CB (1994) Distribution and abundance of the coastal tiger beetle, Cicindela dorsalis media (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae), in South Carolina. Ent News 105: 189–194Google Scholar
  138. Zirnstein G (1996) Ökologie und Umwelt in der Geschichte. Ökologie und Wirtschaftforschung, Band 14. Metropolis-Verlag, Marburg, GermanyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Life SciencesArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  2. 2.RomeItaly

Personalised recommendations