Advertisement

Journal of Insect Conservation

, Volume 9, Issue 4, pp 319–333 | Cite as

Do They Ever Come Back? Responses of Leafhopper Communities to Extensification of Land Use

  • Herbert Nickel
  • Roland Achtziger
Article

Abstract

We studied leafhopper communities in meadows subject to progressive extensification of land use, particularly (i) delay of the first cut, (ii) cessation of fertilising and (iii) reduction of cutting events. Within a gradient from conventionally used high-productivity meadows (as control) through our extensified plots to extensively managed wet hay meadows (as control), we found an increasing species number correlated with extensification of land use. However, a separate analysis of generalists and specialists showed that the latter group increased significantly whereas generalists did not respond at all. Even after 12 years of extensification there was only little evidence for the recovery or recolonisation of former hay meadow insect communities. Instead the increase in species numbers was rather due to immigration of more xerophilous or mesophilous species. We conclude that leafhoppers principally respond positively to extensification of land use, but that restoration of former moisture conditions is necessary in order to achieve a full recovery of original hay meadow communities. Finally we propose a model extensification ecogram for meadow leafhoppers which can be used as a predictive tool for extensification and as an indicator of restoration progress and success.

Keywords

Auchenorrhyncha Efficiency control Extensification Grassland restoration Land use intensity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achtziger R. 1997. Organization patterns in a tritrophic plantinsect system: Hemipteran communities in hedges and forest margins. In: Dettner K., Bauer G. and Vo¨ lkl W. (eds), Vertical Food Web Interactions – Evolutionary Patterns and Driving Forces. Ecological Studies 130: 277–297.Google Scholar
  2. Achtziger, R. 1999Möglichkeiten und Ansätze des Einsatzes von Zikaden in der NaturschutzforschungReichenbachia33171190Google Scholar
  3. Achtziger, R., Nickel, H. 1997Zikaden als Bioindikatoren für naturschutzfachliche Erfolgskontrollen im FeuchtgrünlandBeiträge zur Zikadenkunde1216Google Scholar
  4. Achtziger, R., Nickel, H., Schreiber, R. 1999Auswirkungen von Extensivierungsmaßnahmen auf Zikaden, Wanzen, Heuschrecken und Tagfalter im FeuchtgrünlandSchriftenreihe des Bayerischen Landesamtes für Umweltschutz, Beiträge zum Artenschutz150109131Google Scholar
  5. Andrzejewska, L. 1965Stratification and its dynamics in meadow communities of Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera)Ekologia Polska13685715Google Scholar
  6. Andrzejewska, L. 1971Productivity investigations of two types of meadows in the Vistula valley. VI. Production and population density of leafhopper (Homoptera – Auchenorrhyncha) communitiesEkologia Polska19151172Google Scholar
  7. Andrzejewska, L. 1976The influence of mineral fertilization on the meadow phytophagous faunaPolish Ecol. Studies293109Google Scholar
  8. Andrzejewska, L. 1991Formation of Auchenorrhyncha communities in diversified structures of agricultural landscapePolish Ecol. Studies17267287Google Scholar
  9. Benton, T.M., Vickery, J.A., Wilson, J.D. 2003Farmland biodiversity: is habitat heterogeneity the key?Trends Ecol. Evol.18182188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Biedermann R., Achtziger R., Nickel H., Stewart and A.J.A. 2005. Conservation of grassland leafhoppers: a brief review. J. Insect Conserv. this volume.Google Scholar
  11. Bornholdt, G. 2002Untersuchungen zum Einfluss von Düngung und Nutzungsaufgabe auf die Zikadenfauna von Borstgrasrasen und GoldhaferwiesenBeiträge zur Zikadenkunde51426Google Scholar
  12. Brose, U. 2003Regional diversity of temporary wetland carabid beetle communities: a matter of landscape features or cultivation intensity?Agric. Ecosyst. Environ.98163167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Curry, J.P. 1987The invertebrate fauna of grassland and its influence on productivity. 1. The composition of the faunagrass, and forageScience42103120Google Scholar
  14. Curry, J.P. 1994Grassland Invertebrates – Ecology, Influence on Soil Fertility and Effect on Plant GrowthChapman and HallLondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Della Giustina, W., Balasse, H. 1999Gone with the wind: Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha collected by the French network of suction traps in 1994Marburger entomologische Publikationen3742Google Scholar
  16. Di Giulio, M., Edwards, P.J., Meister, E. 2001Enhancing insect diversity in agricultural grasslands: the roles of management and landscape structureJ. Appl. Ecol.38310319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dolek, M., Geyer, A. 1997Influence of management on butterflies of rare grassland ecosystems in GermanyJ. Insect Conserv.1125130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dufrêne, M., Legendre, P. 1997Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approachEcol. Monogr.67345366Google Scholar
  19. Ellenberg, H. 1996Vegetation Mitteleuropas und der AlpenUlmer–VerlagStuttgartGoogle Scholar
  20. Emmrich, R. 1966Faunistisch-ökologische Untersuchungen über die Zikadenfauna (Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha) von Grünlandflächen und landwirtschaftlichen Kulturen des Greifswalder GebietesMitteilungen des Zoologischen Museums Berlin4261126Google Scholar
  21. Fischer, H.S. 1999Auswirkungen des Bayerischen Vertragsnaturschutzprogramms auf die Vegetationsentwicklung von FeuchtgrünlandSchriftenreihe des Bayerischen Landesamtes für Umweltschutz, Beiträge zum Artenschutz1507188Google Scholar
  22. Funke, T., Witsack, W. 1998Zur Zikadenfauna der Bergbaufolgelandschaft ehemaliger Braunkohletagebaue in Sachsen-Anhalt (HomopteraAuchenorrhyncha) – vorläufige BestandslisteBeiträge zur Zikadenkunde23951Google Scholar
  23. Grime, J.P. 1973Competitive exclusion in herbaceous vegetationNature242344347CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hahn S. 1996. Zur Dynamik der Heuschrecken- und Zikadenfauna am Sukzessionsbeginn auf unterschiedlich bewirtschafteten Brachflächen, Altbrachen und naturnahen Flächen im NSG “Porphyrlandschaft bei Gimritz” nordwestlich von Halle/Saale (SaltatoriaAuchenorrhyncha). PhD Thesis, University of Halle/Saale.Google Scholar
  25. Hartley, S.E., Jones, T.H. 2003Plant diversity and insect herbivores: effects of environmental change in contrasting model systemsOikos101617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Helden, A.J., Leather, S.R. 2004Biodiversity on Urban Roundabouts – HemipteraManagement and the Species-Area RelationshipBasic Appl. Ecol.5367377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hengeveld, R. 1996Measuring ecological biodiversityBiodiv. Lett.35865Google Scholar
  28. Hildebrandt, J. 1995Untersuchungen zur Zikadenfauna (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) einer Ästuarwiese unter dem Einfluß landwirtschaftlicher Nutzung und veränderten ÜberflutungsgeschehensFaunistisch-Ökologische Mitteilungen7945Google Scholar
  29. Hölzel, N., Otte, A. 2003Restoration of a species-rich flood meadow by topsoil removal and diaspore transfer with plant materialAppl. Veget. Sci.6131140Google Scholar
  30. Hollier, J.A., Brown, V.K., Edwards-Jones, G. 1994Successional leafhopper assemblages: Pattern and processEcol. Res.9185191Google Scholar
  31. Kirby, P. 1992A Review of the Scarce and Threatened Hemiptera of Great BritainJoint Nature Conservation CommitteePeterboroughUKGoogle Scholar
  32. Kleijn, D., Berendse, F., Smit, R., Gilissen, N. 2001Agri-environment schemes do not effectively protect biodiversity in Dutch agricultural landscapesNature413723725CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Kleijn, D., Berendse, F., Smit, R., Gilissen, N., Smit, J., Brak, B., Groeneveld, R. 2004Ecological effectiveness of agri-environment schemes in different agricultural landscapes in the NetherlandsConserv. Biol.18775786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Körber-Grohne, U. 1990Gramineen und Grünlandvegetation vom Neolithikum bis zum Mittelalter in MitteleuropaBibiotheca botanica1391105Google Scholar
  35. Kriegbaum, H. 1999Erfolgskontrollen des Naturschutzes in Bayern – eine Übersicht bisheriger ErgebnisseSchriftenreihe des Bayerischen Landesamtes für Umweltschutz, Beiträge zum Artenschutz1501158Google Scholar
  36. Kruess, A., Tscharntke, T. 2002Grazing intensity and the diversity of grasshoppers, butterflies, and trap-nesting bees and waspsConserv. Biol.1615701580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jandel Corporation 1992–1995. SigmaStat for Windows Version 2.0.Google Scholar
  38. Marchand, H. 1953Zur Bedeutung der Heuschrecken und Schnabelkerfe als Indikatoren verschiedener GraslandtypenBeiträge zur Entomologie3116162Google Scholar
  39. McCune, B., Mefford, M.J. 1999PC-ORD for Windows. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological DataVersion 4.10MjM SoftwareGleneden BeachGoogle Scholar
  40. Mielke P.W. Jr. 1984. Meteorological applications of permutation techniques based on distance functions. In: Krishnaiah P.R. and Sen P.K. Handbook of Statistics, Vol 4. Elsevier Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  41. Morris, M.G. 1981aResponses of grassland invertebrates to management by cutting III. Adverse effects on AuchenorrhynchaJ. Appl. Ecol.18107123Google Scholar
  42. Morris, M.G. 1981bResponses of grassland invertebrates to management by cutting IV. Positive responses of AuchenorrhynchaJ. Appl. Ecol.18763771Google Scholar
  43. Morris, M.G. 1990The Hemiptera of two sown calcarous grasslands I. Colonization and early successionJ. Appl. Ecol.27367378Google Scholar
  44. Morris, M.G. 1991Responses of Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera) to fertiliser and liming treatment at Park Grass, RothamstedAgric. Ecosyst. Environ.41263283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Morris, M.G. 2000The effects of structure and its dynamics on the ecology and conservation of arthropods in British grasslandsBiol. Conserv.95129142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Morris, M.G., Plant, R. 1983Responses of grassland invertebrates to management by cutting V. Changes in Hemiptera following cessation of managementJ. Appl. Ecol.20157177Google Scholar
  47. Mühlenberg, M. 1993FreilandökologieQuelle & MeyerHeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  48. Nickel, H. 1999Life strategies of Auchenorrhyncha species on river floodplains in the northern Alps, with description of a new species: Macropsis remanei sp. n. (Hemiptera)Reichenbachia33157169Google Scholar
  49. Nickel, H. 2003The Leafhoppers and Planthoppers of Germany HemipteraAuchenorrhyncha: Patterns and Strategies in a Highly Diverse Group of Phytophagous InsectsPensoft PublishersSofia and MoskauGoogle Scholar
  50. Nickel, H. 2004Rote Liste gefährdeter Zikaden (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) BayernsSchriftenreihe des Bayerischen Landesamtes für Umweltschutz1667381Google Scholar
  51. Nickel, H., Achtziger, R. 1999Wiesen bewohnende Zikaden (Auchenorrhyncha) im Gradienten von Nutzungsintensität und FeuchteBeiträge zur Zikadenkunde36580Google Scholar
  52. Nickel, H., Hildebrandt, J. 2003Auchenorrhyncha communities as indicators of disturbance in grasslands (InsectaHemiptera) – a case study from the Elbe flood plains (northern Germany)Agric. Ecosyst. Environ.98183199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Niedringhaus, R. 1997Die Zikadenfauna (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) einer intensiv genutzten Agrarlandschaft in NordwestdeutschlandAbhandlungens des Westfälischen Museums für Naturkunde59197208Google Scholar
  54. Niedringhaus, R. 1999Bewertung des Renaturierungserfolges in einer Agrarlandschaft Nordwestdeutschlands anhand der Zikadenfauna (Auchenorrhyncha)Beiträge zur Zikadenkunde34964Google Scholar
  55. Nikusch, I. 1976Untersuchungen zur Zikadenfauna (Homoptera – Auchenorrhyncha) des VogelsbergesJahrbuch des Nassauischen Vereins für Naturkunde10398166Google Scholar
  56. Novotny, V. 1994Relation between temporal persistence of host plants and wing length in leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha)Ecol. Entomol.19168176Google Scholar
  57. Olsen, H., Schmidt, N.M. 2004Impacts of wet grassland management and winter severity on wader breeding numbers in eastern DenmarkBasic Appl. Ecol.5203210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pianka, E.R. 1970On r- and K-selectionAm. Nat.104592597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pott, R. 1995The origin of grassland species and grassland communities in Central EuropePhytosociologia29732Google Scholar
  60. Prestidge, R.A. 1982The influence of nitrogenous fertilizer on the grassland Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera)J. Appl. Ecol.19735749Google Scholar
  61. Rajaniemi, R. 2002Why does fertilization reduce plant species diversity? Testing three competition-based hypothesesJ. Ecol.90316324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Remane, R. 1958Die Besiedlung von Grünflächen verschiedener Herkunft durch Wanzen und Zikaden im Weser-Ems-GebietZeitschrift für angewandte Entomologie42352400Google Scholar
  63. Remane R., Achtziger R., Fröhlich W., Nickel H. and Witsack W. 1998. Rote Liste der Zikaden. In: Binot M., Bliss R., Boye P., Gruttke H. and Pretscher P. (eds), Rote Liste der gefährdeten Tiere Deutschlands. Schriftenreihe für Landschaftspflege und Naturschutz 55: 234–245.Google Scholar
  64. Rohlf F.J. 1988. NTSYS-Pc. Exeter Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  65. Sanderson, R.A., Rushton, S.P., Cherrill, A.J., Byrne, J.P. 1995Soil, vegetation and space: an analysis of their effects on the invertebrate communities of a moorland in north-east EnglandJ. Appl. Ecol.32506518Google Scholar
  66. Schiemenz, H. 1969Die Zikadenfauna mitteleuropäischer TrockenrasenEntomologische Abhandlungen des Staatlichen Museums für Tierkunde Dresden36201280Google Scholar
  67. Statistical Graphics Corp. 1994–2000. Statgraphics 5.0.Google Scholar
  68. Siemann, E., Tilman, D., Haarstad, J. 1999Abundancediversity and body size: patterns from a grassland arthropod communityJ. Appl. Ecol.68824835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Smith, R.S., Shiel, R.S., Millward, D., Corkhill, P. 2000The interactive effects of management on the productivity and plant community structure of an upland meadow: an 8-year field trialJ. Appl. Ecol.3710291043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tallowin, J.R.B., Smith, R.E.N. 2001Restoration of a Cirsio-Molinietum fen meadow on an agriculturally improved pastureRestor. Ecol.9167178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tishechkin, D.Y. 1998Acoustic signals and morphological characters of leafhoppers from Aphrodes bicinctus group from central European RussiaZool. Zh.77669676 (In Russian)Google Scholar
  72. Tscharntke, T., Brandl, R. 2004Plant-insect interactions in fragmented landscapesAnnu. Rev. Entomol.49405430CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Waloff, N. 1973Dispersal by flight in leafhoppersJ. Appl. Ecol.10705730Google Scholar
  74. Wainstein, B.A. 1967Some methods of evaluation of similarity of biocoenosesZool. J.46981986(In Russian)Google Scholar
  75. Walter, S. 1998Grünlandbewertung mit Hilfe von Zikaden: ein Beispiel aus dem OsterzgebirgeBeiträge zur Zikadenkunde21318Google Scholar
  76. Watkinson, A.R., Ormerod, S.J. 2001Grasslands, grazing and biodiversity: editorsȁ9 introductionJ. Appl. Ecol.38233237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wettstein, W., Schmid, B. 1999Conservation of arthropod diversity in montane wetlands: effect of altitudehabitat quality and habitat fragmentation on butterflies and grasshoppersJ. Appl. Ecol.36363373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zimmerman, G.M., Goetz, H., Mielke, P.W. 1985Use of improved statistical methods for group comparisons to study effects of prairie fireEcology66606611Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anthropology and Developmental Biology, Ecology GroupUniversity of Göttingen, Institute of ZoologyGöttingenGermany
  2. 2.Interdisciplinary Environmental Research Center, Biology and Ecology GroupTechnical University Bergakademie FreibergFreibergGermany

Personalised recommendations