Demarcating the Realm of Cognition

Article

Abstract

The Extended Mind Hypothesis has given rise to stimulating philosophical debates about the boundaries of the realm of the cognitive. This paper first investigates the usefulness of a “mark of the cognitive,” and then focuses on two accounts that aim to provide such a mark, put forward by Fred Adams and Rebecca Garrison on one side and Mark Rowlands on the other. The paper provides a critical assessment of these accounts and uses empirical work on emotion regulation in infants to unearth some crucial challenges that any attempt at offering a mark of the cognitive should address.

Keywords

Extended cognition Mark of the cognitive Emotion regulation 

References

  1. Adams, F. (2010). Why we still need a mark of the cognitive. Cognitive Systems Research, 11, 324–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, F., & Aizawa, K. (2001). The bounds of cognition. Philosophical Psychology, 14, 43–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams, F., & Aizawa, K. (2008). The bounds of cognition. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  4. Adams, F., & Aizawa, K. (2010). Defending the bounds of cognition. In R. Menary (Ed.), The extended mind (pp. 67–80). Cambridge, MA: MIT/Bradford.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adams, F., & Garrison, R. (2013). The mark of the cognitive. Minds and Machines, 23, 339–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barker, M. J. (2010). From cognition’s location to the epistemology of its nature. Cognitive Systems Research, 11, 357–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brazelton, T. B., Koslowski, B., & Main, M. (1974). The origins of reciprocity: The early mother–infant interaction. In M. Lewis & L. A. Rosenblum (Eds.), The effect of the infant on its caregiver (pp. 49–76). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  8. Buckner, C. (2015). A property cluster theory of cognition. Philosophical Psychology, 28, 307–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chalmers, D. (1996). The conscious mind. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Chalmers, D. (2008). Foreword. In A. Clark (Ed.), Supersizing the mind: Embodiment, action, and cognitive extension (pp. i–xv). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Clark, A. (1997). Being there: Putting brain, body, and world together again. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  12. Clark, A. (2005). Intrinsic content, active memory, and the extended mind. Analysis, 65, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clark, A. (2008). Supersizing the mind: Embodiment, action, and cognitive extension. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clark, A. (2011). Finding the mind. Philosophical Studies, 152, 447–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clark, A., & Chalmers, D. (1998). The extended mind. Analysis, 58, 7–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cole, P. M., Hall, S. E., & Radzioch, A. M. (2009). Emotional dysregulation and the development of serious misconduct. In S. L. Olson & A. J. Sameroff (Eds.), Biopsychosocial regulatory processes in the development of childhood behavioral problems (pp. 186–211). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Condon, W. S., & Sander, L. W. (1974). Synchrony demonstrated between movements of the neonate and adult speech. Child Development, 45, 456–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dumas, G., Nadel, J., Soussignan, R., Martinerie, J., & Garnero, L. (2010). Inter-brain synchronization during social interaction. PLoS ONE, 5(8), e12166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Elpidorou, A. (2014). Reasoning about the mark of the cognitive: A response to Adams and Garrison. Minds & Machines, 24, 201–211.Google Scholar
  20. Feldman, R. (2007). On the origins of background emotions: From affect synchrony to symbolic expression. Emotion, 7(3), 601–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Feldman R. (2012). Parent-infant synchrony: A biobehavioral model of mutual influences in the formation of affiliative bonds. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 77, 42–51.Google Scholar
  22. Feldman, R., & Eidelman, A. I. (2004). Parent–infant synchrony and the social-emotional development of triplets. Developmental Psychology, 40, 1133–1147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fodor, J. (2009). Where is my mind? London Review of Books, 31(3), 13–15.Google Scholar
  24. Gordon, I., Zagoory-Sharon, O., Leckman, J. F., & Feldman, R. (2010). Oxytocin, cortisol, and triadic family interactions. Physiology and Behavior, 101, 679–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gross, J. J. (2014). Emotion regulation: Conceptual and empirical foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (2nd ed., pp. 3–20). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  26. Gross, J. J., Richards, J. M., & John, O. P. (2006). Emotion regulation in everyday life. In D. K. Snyder, J. A. Simpson, & J. N. Hughes (Eds.), Emotion regulation in couples and families: Pathways to dysfunction and health. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  27. Gross, J. J., Sheppes, G., & Urry, H. L. (2011). Emotion generation and emotion regulation: A distinction we should make (carefully). Cognition and Emotion, 25, 765–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ham, J., & Tronick, E. (2009). Relational psychophysiology: Lessons from mother-infant physiology research on dyadically expanded states of consciousness. Psychotherapy Research, 19, 619–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kirchhoff, M. D. (2014). Extended cognition & constitution: Re-evaluating the constitutive claim of extended cognition. Philosophical Psychology, 27(2), 258–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kirchhoff, M. D. (2015). Extended cognition & the alleged causal-constitutive fallacy: In search for a diachronic and dynamical conception of constitution. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 90(2), 320–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Leclère, C., Viaux, S., Avril, M., Achard, C., Chetouani, M., Missonnier, S., et al. (2014). Why synchrony matters during mother-child interactions: A systematic review. PLoS ONE, 9(12), e113571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Manian, N., & Bornstein, M. H. (2009). Dynamics of emotion regulation in infants of clinically depressed and nondepressed mothers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50(11), 1410–1418.Google Scholar
  33. McRae, K. (2016). Cognitive emotion regulation: A review of theory and scientific findings. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 10, 119–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Meltzoff, A. N., & Brooks, R. (2007). Intersubjectivity before language: Three windows on preverbal sharing. In S. Bråten (Ed.), On being moved: From mirror neurons to empathy (pp. 149–174). Philadelphia, PA: John.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Millikan, R. (1984). Language, thought, and other biological categories. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  36. Millikan, R. (1993). White queen psychology and other essays for Alice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  37. Moore, G. A., & Calkins, S. D. (2004). Infants’ vagal regulation in the still-face paradigm is related to dyadic coordination of mother-infant interaction. Developmental Psychology, 40, 1068–1080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Muratori, F., & Maestro, S. (2007). Autism as a downstream effect of primary difficulties in intersubjectivity interacting with abnormal development of brain connectivity. International Journal for Dialogical Science, 2, 93–118.Google Scholar
  39. Quoidbach, J., Berry, E., Hansenne, M., & Mikolajczak, M. (2010). Positive emotion regulation and well-being: Comparing the impact of eight savoring and dampening strategies. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 368–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Reck, C., Hunt, A., Weiss, R., Fuchs, T., Möhler, E., Downing, G., et al. (2004). Interactive regulation of affect in postpartum depressed mothers and their infants. Psychopathology, 3, 272–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rowlands, M. (2008). Extended cognition and the mark of the cognitive. Philosophical Psychology, 22, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rowlands, M. (2010). The new science of the mind: From extended mind to embodied phenomenology. Cambridge: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rupert, R. D. (2004). Challenges to the hypothesis of extended cognition. Journal of Philosophy, 101(8), 389–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rupert, R. D. (2009). Cognitive systems and the extended mind. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sansavini, A., Zavagli, V., Guarini, A., et al. (2015). Dyadic co-regulation, affective intensity and infant’s development at 12 months: A comparison among extremely preterm and full-term dyads. Infant Behavior and Development, 40, 29–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Shapiro, L. (2011). Embodied cognition. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Theiner, G., Allen, C., & Goldstone, R. L. (2010). Recognizing group cognition. Cognitive Systems Research, 11(4), 378–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Trevarthen, C. (1993). The self born in intersubjectivity: An infant communicating. In U. Neisser (Ed.), The perceived self: Ecological and interpersonal sources of self-knowledge (pp. 121–173). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Trevarthen, C. (2002). Origins of musical identity: Evidence from infancy for musical social awareness. In R. A. R. MacDonald, D. J. Hargreaves, & D. Miell (Eds.), Musical identities (pp. 21–38). Oxford: University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Tronick, E. Z. (1989). Emotions and emotional communication in infants. American Psychologist, 44, 112–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tronick, E. Z. (1998). Dyadically expanded states of consciousness and the process of therapeutic change. Infant Mental Health Journal, 19(3), 290–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tronick, E. Z. (2002). A model of infantmood states: Long lasting organizing affective states and emotional representational processes without language or symbols. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 12(1), 73–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. van Holland, M. (2013). Extended cognition and the mark of the cognitive: Prospects of a proper function-based approach. Eindhoven: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.Google Scholar
  54. Varga, S. (2012). Non-reflective self-awareness. Do we need a situated account? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 19(3–4), 164–193.Google Scholar
  55. Varga, S. (2016). Interaction and extended cognition. Synthese, 193(8), 2469–2496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Walter, S., & Kästner, L. (2012). The where and what of cognition: The untenability of cognitive agnosticism and the limits of the Motley Crew Argument. Cognitive Systems Research, 13, 12–23.Google Scholar
  57. Weinberg, M. K., & Tronick, E. Z. (1994). Beyond the face: An empirical study of infant affective configurations of facial, vocal, gestural, and regulatory behaviors. Child Development, 65, 1495–1507.Google Scholar
  58. Weinberg, M. K., Olson, K. L., Beeghly, M., & Tronick, E. Z. (2006). Making up is hard to do, especially for mothers with high levels of depressive symptoms and their infant sons. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 670–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wheeler, M. (2010). In defense of extended functionalism. In R. Menary (Ed.), The extended mind (pp. 245–270). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  60. Zahavi, D., & Kriegel, U. (2015). For-me-ness: What it is and what it is not. In D. Dahlstrom, A. Elpidorou, & W. Hopp (Eds.), Philosophy of mind and phenomenology (pp. 36–53). London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of MemphisMemphisUSA

Personalised recommendations