Reciprocity in the Formation of Intergenerational Coresidence
- First Online:
Children play a key role in supporting elderly parents, and the literature has consistently found reciprocity whereby parents compensate their children for providing care and attention. To understand how the mode of compensation is related to the characteristics of parents and children, we studied the determinants of transitions to parent–child coresidence in Japan. The results conformed to the hypothesis that the mode of reciprocity depends on the costs and benefits of coresidence for each family member. Parental assets and care needs were associated with coresidence. Additionally, transitions to coresidence with married parents were characterized by young, unmarried children and the presence of parental housing assets, whereas transitions to coresidence with widowed mothers were characterized by mothers’ non-housing assets.
KeywordsTransition analysis Latent class model Informal care Parent–child coresidence Aged care
- Ando, A., Yamashita, M., & Murayama, J. (1986). Analysis of consumption and saving based on the lifecycle hypothesis. Economic Analysis, 101, 25–114. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
- Brown, M. (2007). End-of-life transfers and the decision to care for a parent (unpublished manuscript).Google Scholar
- Brown, J. W., Lianga, J., Krausea, N., Akiyama, H., Sugisawa, H., & Fukaya, T. (2002). Transitions in living arrangements among elders in Japan: Does health make a difference? Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 57(4), 209–220. doi:10.1093/geronb/57.4.S209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dodge, H. H., Kadowaki, T., Hayakawa, T., Yamakawa, M., Sekikawa, A., & Ueshima, H. (2005). Cognitive impairment as a strong predictor of incident disability in specific ADL-IADL tasks among community-dwelling elders: The Azuchi study. The Gerontologist, 45(2), 222–230. doi:10.1093/geront/45.2.222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Endo, H., & Yoshida, A. (2001). Family decision on coresidence and demand for formal care services. Quarterly Journal of Social Security Research, 37(3), 281–296 (in Japanese). http://www.ipss.go.jp/syoushika/bunken/data/pdf/15690409.pdf.Google Scholar
- Hall, J., Kenny, P., & Hossain, I. (2007). The provision of informal care in terminal illness: An analysis of carers’ needs using a discrete choice experiment. CHERE working paper 2007/12, University of Technology Sydney. http://www.chere.uts.edu.au/pdf/wp2007_12.pdf.
- Henretta, J. C., Hill, M. S., Li, W., Soldo, B. J., & Wolf, D. A. (1997). Selection of children to provide care: The effect of earlier parental transfers. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 52B, S110–S119. doi:10.1093/geronb/52B.Special_Issue.110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Iwamoto, Y., & Fukui, T. (2001). The effect of income on intergenerational coresidence. JCER Economic Journal, 42, 21–43 (in Japanese). http://www.jcer.or.jp/academic_journal/jer/PDF/42-2.pdf.
- Johar, M., & Maruyama, S. (2013). Does coresidence improve an elderly parent’s health? Journal of Applied Econometrics. doi:10.1002/jae.2339.
- Kim, Y. (2004). What makes family members live apart or together? An empirical study with Japanese panel study of consumers. The Kyoto Economic Review, 73(2), 121–139. http://repository.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2433/24836/1/73.121.pdf.
- Kureishi, W., & Wakabayashi, M. (2009). One’s own parents and one’s spousal parents: A question of strategic bequest motives (unpublished manuscript). http://iussp2009.princeton.edu/papers/91391.
- Maruyama, S. (2012). Inter vivos health transfers: Final days of Japanese elderly parents. UNSW Australian School of Business Research Paper, No. 2012 ECON 20, University of New South Wales.Google Scholar
- Maruyama, S., & Johar, M. (2013). Do siblings free-ride in ‘being there’ for parents? UNSW Australian School of Business Research Paper, No. 2013 ECON 06, University of New South Wales.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. (2008). Report on the comprehensive survey of living conditions of the people on health and welfare (in Japanese). http://www.mhlw.go.jp/toukei/list/20-19-1.html.
- Nakamura, S., & Maruyama, S. (2012). Intergenerational transfers from children to parents. Economic Analysis, 63(4), 318–332 (in Japanese). http://www.ier.hit-u.ac.jp/Japanese/publication/ER/.
- Nishioka, H. (2000). Parent–adult child relationship in Japan: Determinants of parent–adult child coresidence. Journal of Population Problems, 56(3), 34–55 (in Japanese). http://websv.ipss.go.jp/syoushika/bunken/data/pdf/15441102.pdf.Google Scholar
- Sakamoto, K. (2006). Factors affecting coresidence with parents and the effect of coresidence. Japanese Journal of Research on Household Economics, 72, 21–30 (in Japanese). http://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/88984691/journal/jjrhe/pdf/72/072_04.pdf.
- Tabuchi, R. (2008). Parental housing assistance as a determinant of parent-child proximity in Japan: Results from the JGSS-2006. Japanese General Social Surveys Research Series, 7, 13–23 (in Japanese). http://jgss.daishodai.ac.jp/research/monographs/jgssm7/jgssm7_02.pdf.
- World Health Organization. (2007). Women, ageing and health: A framework for action. Canada: WHO.Google Scholar