The Effects of Parenthood on Workforce Participation and Income for Men and Women
- 1.3k Downloads
This paper examined the effects of parenthood on workforce participation for men and women in the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 30-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1,265 individuals born in New Zealand in 1977. The findings suggested that the effects of parenthood on workforce participation were different for men and women. For women, parenthood was associated with decreasing participation in paid employment and fewer hours worked. For men, however, parenthood was not associated with decreased workforce participation and in some cases was associated with increased working hours. These findings had consequences for personal income, with 83–90 % of the total gender income gap in this cohort being attributed to gender differences in the effects of parenthood. These findings suggest that parenthood has markedly different effects on workforce participation and income for men and women.
KeywordsParenthood Gender differences Workforce participation Income Longitudinal study
- Anderson, D. J., Binder, M., & Krause, K. (2002). The motherhood wage penalty: Which mothers pay it and why?. The American Economic Review, 92(2), 354–358. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3083431. Accessed 3 Sep 2011.
- Blau, F. D. (1998). Trends in the well-being of American women, 1970–1995. Journal of Economic Literature, 36(1), 112–165.Google Scholar
- Blau, F. D., & Kahn, L. M. (1996). Wage structure and gender earnings differentials: An international comparison. Economica, 63(250 SUP), S29–S62. Retrieved from http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-0030472497&partnerID=40&md5=13a1ed0e2c649a8ce7965eccec904d0f. Accessed 25 Aug 2011.
- Booth, A. L., Francesconi, M., & Frank, J. (2003). A sticky floors model of promotion, pay, and gender. European Economic Review, 47(2), 295–322. doi: 10.1016/s0014-2921(01)00197-0. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014292101001970. Accessed 24 Aug 2011.
- Cohen, P. N., & Blanchi, S. M. (1999). Marriage, children, and women’s employment: What do we know? Monthly Labor Review, 122(12), 22–31.Google Scholar
- Duncan, K. C. (1996). Gender differences in the effect of education on the slope of experience-earnings profiles: National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979–1988. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 55(4), 457–471. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3487620. Accessed 15 Aug 2011.
- Elder, S. (2010). Women in labour markets: Measuring progress and identifying challenges. International Labour Organization: Geneva. Retrieved from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@ed_emp/@emp_elm/@trends/documents/publication/wcms_123835.pdf. Accessed 16 Aug 2011.
- Elley, W. B., & Irving, J. C. (1976). Revised socio-economic index for New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 11(1), 25–36.Google Scholar
- Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Boden, J. M. (2006). Birth order and educational achievement in adolescence and young adulthood. Australian Journal of Education, 50(2), 122–139. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=22150584&site=ehost-live. Accessed 1 Sep 2011.Google Scholar
- Fergusson, D. M., Lynskey, M. T., & Horwood, L. J. (1996). Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: I. Prevalence of sexual abuse and factors associated with sexual abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(10), 1355–1364. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199610000-00023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Greene, W. T. (1990). Econometric analysis. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Jaumotte, F. (2003). Female labour force participation: Past trends and main determinants in OECD Countries. OECD Economics Department Working Papers. OECD Publishing: Paris. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/25/5/31743836.pdf. Accessed 16 Aug 2011.
- Joshi, H., & Paci, P. (1998). Unequal pay for women and men: Evidence from the British birth cohort studies. London: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Parental Leave and Employment Protection Act 1987 (1987).Google Scholar
- Employment Relations (flexible working arrangements) Amendment Act 2007 (2007).Google Scholar
- New Zealand Ministry of Education. (2011). 20 Hours ECE Retrieved Sept 2, 2011, from http://www.minedu.govt.nz/Parents/EarlyYears/HowECEWorks/20HoursECE.aspx.
- O’Dorchai, S. P. (2008). Do women gain or lose from becoming mothers? Brussels Economic Review, 51, 243–268.Google Scholar
- OECD (2007). Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs) for OECD Countries since 1980. Retrieved June 4, 2008, from http://www.oecd.org/std/ppp.
- Petersen, T., Penner, A., & Hogsnes, G. (2007). From motherhood penalties to fatherhood premia: The new challenge for family policy. Berkeley: Working Paper Series. Institute for Research on Labor and Employment.Google Scholar
- The World Bank (2012). World Development Report 2012: Gender, Equality and Development. World Development Report. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank: Washington DC. Retrieved from http://wdronline.worldbank.org//includes/imp_images/book_pdf/WDR_2012.pdf. Accessed 10 July 2012.
- Wechsler, D. (1974). Wechsler intelligence scale for children: Revised. New York: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar