Journal of Family and Economic Issues

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 411–423 | Cite as

Reconsidering the Temporal Increase in Fathers’ Time with Children

Original Paper

Abstract

Using the 1977 Quality of Employment Survey and the 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce this study showed that the temporal increase in fathers’ time with children was three times larger on non-workdays than workdays. Multivariate analyses revealed that both work (e.g., job autonomy) and family (presence of young children, dependence on wives’ earnings) factors increased men’s time with children. A decomposition analysis showed that changes in men’s behavior accounted for 70% of the temporal increase in fathers’ time with children, and that structural change in work and family life (especially wives’ increased contributions to household income) accounted for the remaining 30%. The implications of these findings and the need for further study of these issues were briefly discussed.

Keywords

Child care Fatherhood Work-family nexus 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This research was supported by grants from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (R03-HD42411-01A1), and the Charles Phelps Taft Research Center at the University of Cincinnati. I thankfully acknowledge the comments of participants in the workshop series at the University of Chicago’s Sloan Center for Parents, Children, and Work, and the colloquium series at the University of Cincinnati.

References

  1. Bianchi, S. M. (2000). Maternal employment and time with children: Dramatic change or surprising continuity? Demography, 37, 401–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bianchi, S. M., Robinson, J. P., & Milkie, M. A. (2006). Changing rhythms of American family life. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  3. Bond, J. T., Galinsky, E., & Swanberg, J. E. (1998). The 1997 national study of the changing workforce. New York: Families and Work Institute.Google Scholar
  4. Brewster, K. L., & Padavic, I. (2000). Change in gender-ideology, 1977–1996: The contributions of intrachohort change and population turnover. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 477–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bryant, W. K., & Zick, C. D. (1996a). An examination of parent-child shared time. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58, 227–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bryant, W. K., & Zick, C. D. (1996b). Are we investing less in the next generation? Historical trends in time spent caring for children. Journal of Family and Econcomic Issues, 17, 365–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Budig, M. J., & England, P. (2001). The wage penalty for motherhood. American Sociological Review, 66, 204–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bulanda, R. E. (2004). Paternal involvement with children: The influence of gender ideologies. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 66, 40–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coltrane, S. (2000). Research on household labor: Modeling and measuring the social embeddedness of routine family work. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 1208–1233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Craig, L. (2007). How employed mothers in Australia find time for both market work and children. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 28, 69–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dermott, E. (2008). Intimate fatherhood: A sociological analysis. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Estes, S. B., Noonan, M., & Maume, D. J. (2007). Is work-family policy use related to the gendered division of housework? Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 28, 527–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fried, M. (1998). Taking time: Parental leave policy and corporate culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Galinsky, E. (1999). Ask the children. New York: Quill.Google Scholar
  15. Gerson, K. (1993). No man’s land: Men’s changing commitments to family and work. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  16. Golden, L. (2008). Limited access: Disparities in flexible work schedules and work-at-home. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 29, 86–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gornick, J. C., & Meyers, M. (2003). Families that work: Policies for reconciling parenthood and employment. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  18. Greenstein, T. N. (1996). Gender ideology and perceptions of the fairness of the division of household labor: Effects on marital quality. Social Forces, 74, 1029–1042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hakim, C. (2002). Lifestyle preferences as determinants of women’s differentiated labor market careers. Work and Occupations, 29, 428–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hall, S. S. (2005). Change in paternal involvement from 1977 to 1997: A cohort analysis. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 34, 127–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hays, S. (1996). The cultural contradictions of motherhood. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Hochschild, A. (1989). The second shift. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
  23. Hochschild, A. (1997). The time bind: When work becomes home and home becomes work. New York: Metropolitan.Google Scholar
  24. Hofferth, S. L. (2003). Race/Ethnic differences in father involvement in two-parent families: Culture, context, or economy? Journal of Family Issues, 24, 185–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hofferth, S. L., Forry, N. D., & Peters, H. E. (2010). Child support, father–child contact, and preteens’ involvement with nonresidential fathers: Racial/ethnic differences. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 31, 14–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jacobs, J. A., & Gerson, K. (2004). The time divide: Work, family, and gender inequality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Jones, F. L., & Kelley, J. (1984). Decomposing differences between groups: A cautionary note on measuring discrimination. Sociological Methods and Research, 12, 323–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lareau, A. (2002). Invisible inequality: Social class and childrearing in black families and white families. American Sociological Review, 67, 747–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. LaRossa, R. (1997). The modernization of fatherhood: A social and political history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  30. Maume, D. J., & Bellas, M. L. (2001). The overworked American or the time bind? Assessing competing explanations for time spent in paid labor. American Behavioral Scientist, 44, 1137–1156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Maume, D. J., Sebastian, R. A., & Bardo, A. R. (2009). Gender differences in sleep disruption among retail food workers. American Sociological Review, 74, 989–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Monna, B., & Gauthier, A. (2008). A review of the literature on the social and economic determinants of parental time. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 29, 634–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nock, S. L., & Kingston, P. W. (1988). Time with children: The impact of couples’ work-time commitments. Social Forces, 67, 59–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pleck, J. H. (2004). Paternal involvement: Levels, sources, and consequences. In J. H. Pleck & B. P. Masciadrelli (Eds.), The role of father in child development (4th ed., pp. 221–271). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  35. Presser, H. (2003). Working in a 24/7 economy: Challengers for American families. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  36. Risman, B. J. (1987). Intimate relationships from a microstructural perspective: Mothering men. Gender and Society, 1, 6–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ryder, N. (1960). The cohort as a concept in the study of social change. American Sociological Review, 23, 843–861.Google Scholar
  38. Sandberg, J. F., & Hofferth, S. L. (2001). Changes in children’s time with parents: United States, 1981–1997. Demography, 38, 423–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sayer, L. C., Bianchi, S. M., & Robinson, J. P. (2004). Are parents investing less in children? Trends in mothers’ and fathers’ time with children. American Journal of Sociology, 110, 1–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Staines, G. L., & Quinn, R. P. (1979). American workers evaluate the quality of their jobs. Monthly Labor Review, 102, 3–12.Google Scholar
  41. Townsend, N. W. (2002). The package deal: Marriage, work, and fatherhood in men’s lives. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Waldron, I., Weiss, C. C., & Hughes, M. E. (1998). Interacting effects of multiple roles on women’s health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 39, 216–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Williams, J. (2000). Unbending gender: Why family and work conflict and what to do about it. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Yeung, W. J., Sandberg, J. F., Davis-Kean, P. E., & Hofferth, S. L. (2001). Children’s time with fathers in intact families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63, 136–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kunz Center for Research on Work, Family, & GenderUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA

Personalised recommendations