How Do Schools Bridge the Gap Between External Demands for Accountability and the Need for Internal Trust? Abstract
This article will discuss how schools in countries like Denmark cope with the external demands for accountability made on them by many different stakeholders and at the same time strive to build and sustain trust in and trust from staff. The school context in relation to these challenges is seen in light of the increasing complexity of societies. On the one hand, there are pressures to transform the governing of schools towards a more ‘rigorous’ form of New Public Management (NPM). On the other hand, there is a growing consciousness of the need to sustain trust and loyalty in the school as a community. In the middle of this squeeze are the actors: the teachers and school leaders. The school leader is pivotal to the relations with external authorities and communities and to internal agents like staff. The struggle between accountability and trust is seen from the perspective of school leaders, drawing on data and analysis from the Danish part of an international comparative study on the Life History of School Leaders. The data and analyses in this project make it possible to take an historical perspective when trying to understand the thinking of Danish school leaders.
Keywords accountability democracy hypercomplexity leadership life history New Public Management trust References
Act on Folkeskole (1995). “Consolidation Act No. 55 of 17 January.”
Google Scholar Adams, J.E., Kirst, M.W. 1999 New demands and concepts for educational accountability: Striving for results in an era of excellence Murphy, J. Louis, K.S. eds. Handbook of Research on Educational Administration Jossey Bass San Francisco, CA Google Scholar Ball, S.J. Goodson, I. eds. 1985Teachers’ Lives and Careers Falmer Press Lewes, UK Google Scholar Ball, S.J. 2003 Professionalism, managerialism and performativity Moos, L. Krejsler, J. eds. Professional Development DPU Press Copenhagen Google Scholar Beck, U. 1986Risikosamfundet Hans Reitzel Copenhagen Google Scholar Biesta, G. 2004 Against learning – reclaiming a language for education in an age of learning Nordisk Pedagogik 24 70 82 Google Scholar Biott, C., Moos, L., Møller, J. 2001 Studying headteachers’ professional lives: Getting the life history Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 45 395 410 CrossRef Google Scholar Bruner, J. 1999Mening i handling Klim Arhus Google Scholar Connelly, F.M., Clandinin, D.J. 1999Teachers’ Professional Lives Teachers College Press New York Google Scholar Foucault, M. 1991 Governmentalité Burcell, G. Gordon, C. Miller, P. eds. The Foucault effect: Studies in governmentality Harvester Wheatsheaf New York 87 104 Google Scholar Giddens, A. 1991Modernity and Self-identity Polity Press Cambridge Google Scholar Giddens, A. 1996Modernitet og selvidentitet Hans Reitzel Copenhagen Google Scholar Goodson, I. 1992Studying Teachers’ Lives Routledge Oxford Google Scholar Goodson, I. 1995 The story so far: Personal knowledge and the political Tiller, T. Sparkes, S. Kårhus, S. Dowling, F. Næss, eds. The Qualitative Challenge: Reflections on Educational Research Caspar Bergen, Norway Google Scholar Goodson, I. Hargreaves, A. eds. 1996Teahers’ Professional Lives Falmer Press New York Google Scholar Hargreaves, A. 1994Changing Teachers, Changing Times Teachers College Press New York Google Scholar Huberman, M. 1989 The professional life cycle of teachers Teachers College Record 91 31 58 Google Scholar Kelchtermans, G. 1993 Getting the story, understanding the lives: From career stories to teachers’ professional development Teaching and Teacher Education 9 443 456 Google Scholar Kirkeby, O.F. 1998Ledelsesfilosofi. Et radikalt normativt perspektiv Samfundslitteratur Copenhagen Google Scholar Klausen, K.K. 2001Skulle det være noget særligt? Børsen Offentlig ledelse Copenhagen Google Scholar
Leithäuser, T. (1977).
Entwurf zu einer empirie des Alltagsbewustseins
Lieblich, A., Truvval-Maschiach, R. & Zilber, T. (1998)
Narrative Research. Reading, Analysis and Interpretation
Google Scholar Luhman, N. 1979 Trust: A mechanism for the reduction of social complexity Luhman, N. eds. Trust and Power: Two Works by Niklas Luhman John Wiley and Sons Chichester Google Scholar MacBeath, J., Moos, L., Riley, K. 1998 Time for a change MacBeath, J. eds. Effective School Leadership: Responding to Change Chapman London Google Scholar Moos, L. 2003a Introduction MacBeath, J. Moos, L. eds. Democratic Learning. The Challenge to School Effectiveness RoutledgeFalmer London 1 18 Google Scholar Moos, L. 2003bPædagogisk ledelse – om ledelsesopgaven og relationerne i uddannelsesinstitutioner Børsens Forlag Copenhagen Google Scholar Moos, L., Krejsler, J. 2003a Introduction Moos, L. Krejsler, J. eds. Professional Development and Educational Chance Danish University of Education Press Copenhagen 5 19 Google Scholar Moos, L. Krejsler, J. eds. 2003bProfesional Development and Educational Chance Danish University of Education Press Copenhagen Google Scholar Moos, L., Møller, J. 2003 Schools and leadership in transition – The case of Scandinavia Cambridge Journal of Education 33 353 370 CrossRef Google Scholar Moos, L., Carney, S., Johansson, O., Mehlbye, J. 2000Skoleledelse i Norden Nordisk Ministerråd Copenhagen Google Scholar Peters, M., Marshall, J., Fitzsimons, P. 2000 Managerialism and educational policy in a global context: Foucault, neoliberalism and the doctrine of self-management Burbules, N.C. Torres, C.A. eds. Globalization and Education: Critical Perspectives Routledge Oxford 109 132 Google Scholar Qvortrup, L. 2001Det lærende samfund Gyldendal Copenhagen Google Scholar Seligman, A.B. 1997The Problem of Trust Princeton University Press Princeton, NJ Google Scholar Sinclair, A. 1995 The chameleon of accountability: Forms and discourses Accounting, Organizations and Society 20 219 237 Google Scholar Starratt, R.J. 2001 Democratic leadership theory in late modernity: An oxymoron or ironic possibility? International Journal of Leadership in Education 4 333 354 Google Scholar Sugrue, C. eds. 2004Passionate Principalship: Learning from Life Histories of School Principals in Four Countries RoutledgeFalmer London Google Scholar Sugrue, C., Furlong, C. 2002 The cosmologies of Irish primary principals’ identities: Between the modern and the post modern? International Journal of Leadership in Education 5 189 210 CrossRef Google Scholar Thyssen, O. 2001 Tillid Bordum, A. Wenneberg, S.B. eds. Det handler om tillid Samfundslitteratur Copenhagen Google Scholar Warren, M.E. 1999 Democratic theory and trust Warren, M.E. eds. Democracy & Trust Cambridge University Press Cambridge Google Scholar Wenger, E. 1999Communities of Practice. Learning, Meaning and Identity Cambridge University Press Cambridge Google Scholar