Journal of Electroceramics

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 97–112 | Cite as

Thick-film piezoceramics and devices

  • R. N. Torah
  • S. P. Beeby
  • M. J. Tudor
  • N. M. White
Article

Abstract

Over the past 20 years, thick-film (screen printed) technology has been shown to possess a variety of desirable characteristics, which are particularly suitable for the realisation of micro-sensors and actuators. In particular, thick-film sensors are noted for their robust, versatile, compact and inexpensive nature. This paper will describe how screen printed thick-films can be used as the basis for a variety of piezoelectric a transducers. It will be shown how the technology can be combined with MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) to generate new types of micro-engineered structure. The evolution of the technology to a successful enabling mechanism for modern-day solid state sensors is described. The paper begins with a brief overview of piezoelectric thick-films including a discussion of the main factors relating to paste formulation, characterisation and techniques for fabricating devices. There is also a description of methods for fabricating thick-films on silicon, which opens up the possibility of using thick-film technology in the field of MEMS. A number of specific sensors and actuators are described, including accelerometers, micropumps, ultrasonic motors, slip sensors for prosthetic hands, resonators, elastic wave sensors and ultrasonic separators.

Keywords

PZT Thick-film Screen-printing 

References

  1. 1.
    N.M. White, J.D. Turner, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1–20 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J.E. Brignell, N.M. White, A.W.J Cranny, IEE Proc. I. 135(4), 77–84 (1988)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Baudry, Proceedings of the sixth European Microelectronics Conference. 456–63 (1987)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. Morten, G. De Cicco, M. Prudenziati, Proc. 7th European Hybrid Microelectronics Conference. paper 8.4 (1989)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    B. Morten, G. De Cicco, A. Gandolfi, C. Tonelli, Proc. 8th European Hybrid Microelectronics Conference. 392–399 (1991)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Moilanen, S. Leppavuori, A. Uusimaki, Sens. Actuators A. 37–38, 106–111 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    E.S. Thiele, N. Setter, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 83, 1407–1412 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Take-Control Piezometer: http://www.take-control.demon.co.uk
  9. 9.
    J.E. Southin, S.A. Wilson, D. Schmitt, R.W. Whatmore, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 34, 1456–1460 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    R.A. Dorey, R.W. Whatmore, Integr. Ferroelectr. 50, 111–119 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    R.N. Torah, S.P. Beeby, N.M. White, Sens. Actuators A. 110(1–3), 378–384 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R.N. Torah, S.P. Beeby, N.M. White, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52(1), 10–16 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. Harsanyi, Sens. Rev. 20, 98–105 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    W.W. Clegg, D.F.L. Jenkins, M.J. Cunningham, Sens. Actuators A. 58, 173–177 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. Uebershlag, Sens. Rev. 21, 118–125 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    T. Papakostas, N.R. Harris, S.P. Beeby, N.M. White, Eurosensors XII Southampton 461–464 (1998)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R.N. Torah, S.P. Beeby, N.M. White, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1–5 (2004)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    S.P. Beeby, N.M. White, Sens. Actuators A. 88, 189–197 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. Futakuchi, H. Yamano, M. Adachi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 5687–5689 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Dargahi, Sens. Actuators A. 80, 23–30 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    R. Maas, M. Koch, N. Harris, N.M. White, A. Evans, Mater. Lett. 31, 109–112 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H.D. Chen, K.R. Udayakumar, L.E. Cross, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 3349–3353 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. Kohler, P. Dullenkopf, Microelectron. Int. 17/3, 7–10 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    N.M. White, P. Glynne-Jones, S.P. Beeby, M.J. Tudor, M. Hill, Meas. Control 34(9), 267–271 (2001)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    N.M. White, P. Glynne-Jones, S.P. Beeby, Smart Mater. Struc. 10(4), 1850–1852 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. Yan, B.E. Jones, R.T. Rakowski, M.J. Tudor, S.P. Beeby, N.M White, IEE Electronics Letters 39(13), 982–983 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ultrasonic & Acoustic Transducer Group: Production of Piezoceramics, UK, Morgan Electro Ceramics Internal PublicationGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. Robertson, R.D. Shipton, D.R. Gray, Sens. Rev. 19(1), 33–36 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sol Gel process website: http://www.chemat.com/html/solgel.html
  30. 30.
    Y.B. Kim, T.S. Kim, K.S. Choi, D.J. Choi, Integr. Ferroelectr. 35, 199–208 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    D.L. Corker, Q. Zhang, R.W. Whatmore, C. Perrin, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 22, 383–390 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. Dudek, Z. Wrobel, Ferroelectrics 18, 161–164 (1978)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    C.A. Randall, N. Kim, J.-P. Kucera, W. Cao, T.R. Shrout, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 81(3), 677–688 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    P. Glynne-Jones, S.P. Beeby, P.G. Dargie, T.P. Papakostas, N.M. White, Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 526–531 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    S.P. Beeby, A. Blackburn, N.M. White, Mater. Lett. 40, 187–191 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    S.P. Beeby, A. Blackburn, N.M. White, J. Micromechanics Microengineering 9, 218–229 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    E.S. Thiele, D. Damjanovic, N. Setter, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84(12), 2863–2868 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    M. Koch, N.R. Harris, R. Maas, A.G.R. Evans, N.M. White, A. Brunnschweiler, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 49–57 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. Koch, N.R. Harris, A.G.R. Evans, N.M. White, A. Brunnschweiler, Sens. Actuators A A70(1–2), 98–103 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    K. Junwu, Y. Zhigang, R. Taijiang, C. Guangming, W. Boda, Sens. Actuators A 121, 156–161 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Y.B. Kim, H.J. Kim, C.I. Cheon, D.J. Choi, T.S. Kim, Integr. Ferroelectr. 50, 61–70 (2001)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    D. Crescini, D. Marioli, E. Sardini, A. Taroni, Sens. Actuators A 87, 131–138 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    S.P. Beeby, J.N. Ross, N.M. White, IEE Electronics Letters 35(23), 2060–2062 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    M. Kurosawa, H. Inagaki, T. Higuchi, Ultrasonics 34, 271–274 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    T. Morita, M. Kurosawa, T. Higuchi, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 45(5), 1178–1186 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    M. Hu, H. Du, F.S. Ling, J.K. Teo, Sens. Actuators A 94, 113–116 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. Aoyagi, S.P. Beeby, N.M. White, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 49(2), 151–158 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    C.M. Light, P.H. Chappell, Med. Eng. Phys. 22, 679–684 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    A.W.J. Cranny, P.H. Chappell, S.P. Beeby, N.M. White, Proc. Eurosensors XVII. (Portugal 2003)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    S.P. Beeby, N.M. White, Electron. Lett. 36(19), 1661–1662 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    S.P. Beeby, N.M. White, Sens. Actuators A 88, 189–197 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    V. Ferrari, D. Marioli, A. Taroni, Electron. Lett. 32(9), 855–856 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    V. Ferrari, D. Marioli, A. Taroni, Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 42–48 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    H.J. Kim, Y.B. Kim, J.Y. Kang, T.S. Kim, Integr. Ferroelectr. 50, 11–20 (2002)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    B. Morten, G. De Cicco, M. Prudenziati, Sens. Actuators 41–42, 33–38, (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    N.M. White, G.R. Leach, IEE Proc., Sci. Meas. Technol. 42, 249–254 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    N.M. White, V.T.K. Ko, Electron. Lett. 29, 1807–1808 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    J. Hale, T. Dyakowski, A. Jaworski, N.M. White, N. Harris, Proc. of Sensors and their Applications XII. 71–76 (Limerick 2003)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    T. Dyakowski, J. Hale, N. Harris, A. Jaworski, A. Nowakowski, N.M. White, Y. Zhang, 3rd World Congress in Industrial Process Tomography. (Alberta 2003)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    N. Harris, M. Hill, Y. Shen, R. Townsend, S.P. Beeby, N.M. White, Ultrasonics 42, 139–144 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    M. Hill, N. Harris, R. Townsend, N.M. White, S.P. Beeby, World Congress on Ultrasonics. (Paris 2003) 1647–1650Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    N.R. Harris, M. Hill, S. Beeby, Y. Shen, N.M. White, J.J. Hawkes, W.T. Coakley, Sens. Actuators B 95, 425–434 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    N.R. Harris, M. Hill, R. Torah, R. Townsend, S. Beeby, N.M. White, J. Ding, Proc. Of Eurosensors XIX. (Barcelona, 2005)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    V. Ferrari, D. Marioli, A. Taroni, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 51(4), 819–823 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    T. Futakuchi, H. Yamano, M. Adachi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 5687–5689 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. N. Torah
    • 1
  • S. P. Beeby
    • 1
  • M. J. Tudor
    • 1
  • N. M. White
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Electronics and Computer ScienceUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations