Advertisement

Journal of East Asian Linguistics

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 307–356 | Cite as

The syntax, semantics, and pragmatics of covert pied-piping in Sinhala and Japanese Wh-questions

  • Hisashi MoritaEmail author
Article
  • 58 Downloads

Abstract

This paper is a study of Japanese and Sinhala wh-questions, both of which employ a special particle called a Q-particle, ka in Japanese and in Sinhala, forming QP. A Q-particle is normally base-generated adjacent to a wh-phrase or at the edge of an island when a wh-phrase is inside. However, under very restricted circumstances, a Q-particle can merge with TP, and the whole TP can be pied-piped to spec of CP. An information-seeking wh-question normally represents a set of unvalued propositions (i.e. Hamblin set); however, we claim there are cases in which a set of true propositions (i.e. Karttunen set) can be the meaning of an information-seeking wh-question, and this happens when TP pied-piping is applied. Each circumstance in which such pied-piping is possible is carefully analyzed.

Keywords

Degree questions Know/investigate/wonder class predicates Informative answers Intervention effects Answerhood operator Information focus de re/de dicto Existential presupposition 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I am very thankful to five anonymous reviewers of Journal of East Asian Linguistics. Thanks to them, this paper has gone through extensive revisions and dramatic improvement. Earlier drafts were presented in WIGL (Workshop in Generative Linguistics) 11 and GLOW in Asia X in May, 2014, FAJL (Formal Approaches to Japanese Linguistics) 7 in June, 2014, SICOGG (Seoul International Conference on Generative Grammar) 17 in August, 2015, and a linguistics seminar at the University of Tromso in January, 2017. I would like to thank the audience for important questions and suggestions, particularly Jun Abe, Kazuma Fujimaki, Namkil Kang, Hideki Kishimoto, Yasuyuki Kitao, Daiho Kitaoka, Bjørn Lundquist, Sergey Minor, Shigeru Miyagawa, Manabu Mizuguchi, Takashi Munakata, Omer Preminger, Gillian Ramchand, Koji Sugisaki, Peter Svenonius, Kaori Takamine, Tarald Taraldsen, Yukiko Ueda, Tharanga Weerasooriya, and Barry Yang. Discussions with Yimei Xiang, Seth Cable and Norvin Richards were invaluable too. Many thanks go to Tilak and Punya Senanayake, and Vishaka Illankoon for grammatical judgment of Sinhala examples, and Liang Morita for stylistic suggestions and continuous encouragement. This study has been supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (#18K00540).

References

  1. Arregi, Karlos. 2003. Clausal Pied-Piping. Natural Language Semantics 11: 115–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beck, Sigrid. 2006. Intervention Effects Follow from Focus Interpretation. Natural Language Semantics 14: 1–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beck, Sigrid, and Shin-Sook Kim. 1997. On WH- and Operator Scope in Korean. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 6: 339–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beck, Sigrid, and Shin-Sook Kim. 2006. Intervention Effects in Alternative Questions. Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 9: 165–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beck, Sigrid, and Hotze Rullmann. 1999. Exhaustivity in Questions. Natural Language Semantics 7: 249–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cable, Seth. 2007. Wh-Fronting as a By-Product of Q-Movement: Evidence from Tlingit. NELS 37: 127–140.Google Scholar
  7. Cable, Seth. 2010. The Grammar of Q: Q-particles, Wh-Movement, and Pied-Piping. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Choe, Jae W. 1987. LF Movement and Pied-piping. Linguistic Inquiry 18: 348–353.Google Scholar
  9. Chomsky, Noam. 2001. Derivation by Phase. In Ken Hale: A Life in Language, ed. M. Kenstowicz, 1–52. Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
  10. Chomsky, Noam. 2013. Problems of Projection. Lingua 130: 33–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cresti, Diana. 1995. Extraction and Reconstruction. Natural Language Semantics 3: 79–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dayal, Veneeta. 1996. Locality in WH Quantification. Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dayal, Veneeta. 2016. Questions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Endo, Yoshio. 2007. Locality and Information Structure-A Cartographic Approach to Japanese. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fox, Danny. 1999. Reconstruction, Binding Theory, Interpretation of Chains. Linguistic Inquiry 30: 157–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fox, Danny. 2002. Antecedent-Contained Deletion and the Copy Theory of Movement. Linguistic Inquiry 33: 63–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gair, James. 1983. “Nonconfigurationality, Movement, and Sinhala Focus.” A Paper Presented at the Linguistic Association of Great Britain, Newcastle, Published in Gair (1998: 50–64).Google Scholar
  18. Gair, James. 1998. Studies in South Asian Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Hagstrom, Paul Alan. 1998. “Decomposing Questions.” PhD dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  20. Hamblin, C.L. 1973. Questions in Montague English. Foundations of Language 10: 41–53.Google Scholar
  21. Heim, Irena. 1994. “Interrogative Semantics and Karttunen’s Semantics for ‘know’.” In Proceedings of the Israeli Association for Theoretical Linguistics, Jerusalem, ed. R. Buchalla and A. Mittwoch, 128–144.Google Scholar
  22. Heim, Irene, and Angelika Kratzer. 1998. Semantics in Generative Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  23. Heycock, Caroline. 1995. Asymmetries in reconstruction. Linguistic Inquiry 26: 547–570.Google Scholar
  24. Higginbotham, James. 1993. Interrogatives. In The View from Building 20, ed. K. Hale and S.J. Keyser, 195–227. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  25. Hoji, Hajime. 1985. “Logical Form Constraints and Configurational Structures.” PhD dissertation, University of Washington.Google Scholar
  26. Horvath, Julia. 2006. Pied-Piping. In The Blackwell Companion to Syntax, ed. M. Everaert and H. van Riemsdijk, 569–630. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ishii, Toru. 2013. “Complementizer Stacking, Dual Selections, and Relabel.” In MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 66, ed. K. Yatsushiro and U. Sauerland, 73–84.Google Scholar
  28. Karttunen, Lauri. 1977. Syntax and Semantics of Questions. Linguistics and Philosophy 1 (1): 3–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Karttunen, Lauri, and Stanley Peters. 1976. “What indirect questions conventionally implicate.” Proceedings from the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, 351–368.Google Scholar
  30. Keenan, Edward L., and Robert D. Hull. 1973. The Logical Presuppositions of Questions and Answers. In Präsuppositionen in Philosophie und Linguistik, ed. J.S. Petöfi and D. Franck, 441–466. Frankfurt: Athenäum.Google Scholar
  31. Kim, Shin-Sook. 2002. Intervention Effects are Focus Effects. Japanese/Korean Linguistics 10: 615–628.Google Scholar
  32. Kishimoto, Hideki. 1992. LF Pied Piping: Evidence from Sinhala. Gengo Kenkyu 102: 46–87.Google Scholar
  33. Kishimoto, Hideki. 1997. “Wh-in situ and null operator movement in Sinhala questions.” ms., Hyogo University of Teacher Education.Google Scholar
  34. Kishimoto, Hideki. 2005. WH-IN-SITU and Movement in Sinhala Questions. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 23: 1–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Koopman, Hilda. 1996. “The Spec-Head Configuration.” In Syntax at Sunset, UCLA Working Papers in Syntax and Semantics 1, ed. E. Garrett and F. Lee, 37–64. UCLA Department of Linguistics.Google Scholar
  36. Kuno, Susumu. 1990. “Against Pied Piping in LF.” In Interdisciplinary Approaches to Language: Essays in Honor of S.-Y. Kuroda, ed. C. Georgopoulos and R. Ishihara, 373–396. Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lahiri, Utpal. 1991. “Embedded Interrogatives and Predicates that Embed Them.” PhD dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  38. Lahiri, Utpal. 2002. Questions and Answers in Embedded Contexts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Morita, Hisashi. 2009. Covert Pied-Piping in Japanese Wh-Questions. English Linguistics 26 (2): 374–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Morita, Hisashi. 2014. Successive-Cyclic Wh-Movement in Sinhalese and Japanese. The Journal of the Faculty of Foreign Studies 46: 111–128, Aichi Prefectural University.Google Scholar
  41. Morita, Hisashi. 2019. Two Kinds of In Situ Languages and Two Ways to Overcome Islands. Mulberry 69: 1–30.Google Scholar
  42. Morita, Hisashi, and Namkil Kang. 2016. The Intervention Effect as a Syntactic Phenomenon in Korean Wh-Questions. Studies in Generative Grammar 26 (2): 165–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Nakanishi, Kimiko. 2008. The Syntax and Semantics of Floating Numeral Quantifiers. In The Oxford Handbook of Japanese Linguistics, ed. S. Miyagawa and M. Saito, 287–319. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Nicolae, Andreea Christina. 2013. “Any Questions? Polarity as a Window into the Structure of Questions.” PhD dissertation, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  45. Nishigauchi, Taisuke. 1986. “Quantification in the Theory of Grammar.” PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.Google Scholar
  46. Nishigauchi, Taisuke. 1990. Quantification in the Theory of Grammar. Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ortiz de Urbina, Jon. 1990. “Operator Feature Percolation and Clausal Pied Piping.” MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 13: 193–208.Google Scholar
  48. Pesetsky, David. 1987. Wh-in situ: Movement and Unselective Binding. In The Representation of (In)definiteness, ed. E.J. Reuland and A. ter Meulen. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  49. Rizzi, Luigi. 1997. The Fine Structure of the Left Periphery. In Elements of Grammar: Handbook in Generative Syntax, ed. L. Haegeman, 281–337. Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rullmann, Hotze. 1995. “Maximality in the Semantics of WH construction”. PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.Google Scholar
  51. Rullmann, Hotze, and Sigrid Beck. 1998. “Presupposition Projection and the Interpretation of which-Questions.” SALT VIII: 213–232.Google Scholar
  52. Sauerland, Uli. 1998. “The Meaning of Chains.” PhD dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  53. Slade, Benjamin Martin. 2011. “Formal and Philological Inquiries into the Nature of Interrogatives, Indefinites, Disjunction, and Focus in Sinhala and other languages.” PhD dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.Google Scholar
  54. Sportiche, Dominique. 1995. Sketch of a Reductionist Approach to Syntactic Variation and Dependencies. In Evolution and Revolution in Syntactic Theory, ed. H. Campos, 356–398. Washington: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Sumangala, Lelwala. 1992. “Long Distance Dependencies in Sinhala: The Syntax of Focus and WH Questions.” PhD dissertation, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  56. Tanaka, Hidekazu. 1999. LF wh-Island and the Minimal Scope Principle. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 17: 371–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tomioka, Satoshi. 2007. Pragmatics of LF Intervention Effects: Japanese and Korean Interrogatives. Journal of Pragmatics 39: 1570–1590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Uegaki, Wataru. 2015. “Interpreting Questions Under Attitudes.” PhD dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  59. von Stechow, Arnim. 1996. Against LF Pied-piping. Natural Language Semantics 4: 57–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yang, Barry Chung-Yu. 2012. Intervention Effects and wh-Construals. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 21: 43–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yoshida, Tomoyuki. 1998. Wh-Operator Versus Yes/No-Operator. ICU Language Research Bulletin 13: 159–172.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of British and American StudiesAichi Prefectural UniversityNagakuteJapan

Personalised recommendations