Journal of East Asian Linguistics

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 157–206 | Cite as

Reflexive binding: awareness and empathy from a syntactic point of view

Article

Abstract

In this paper we develop an analysis of reflexive binding involving the reflexive zibun in Japanese. We argue that the reflexive zibun is bound in a minimal domain defined by the POV (point of view) feature, which entails that zibun requires local binding. In what appears to be a case of long distance binding, zibun is in fact locally bound by pro that occupies Spec of the POV projection, which is open to control by a Sentient focus or an Empathy Focus depending the nature of the POV head. This accounts for the different behaviors of the reflexive zibun with respect to the Awareness condition and Empathy. The analysis also has empirical consequences for subject orientation and the Blocking Effect with reflexive binding.

Keywords

Reflexive binding Logophoricity Empathy POV projections Blocking effect 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abe, J. 1997. The locality of Zibun and logophoricity. Researching and Verifying an Advanced Theory of Human Language 1:595–626.Google Scholar
  2. Adesola O.P. (2006) A-bar dependencies in the Yoruba reference-tracking system. Lingua 116: 2068–2106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Belletti A., Rizzi L. (1988) Psych-verbs and θ?-theory. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 6: 291–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borer H. (1994) The projection of arguments. University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics 17: 19–47Google Scholar
  5. Bresnan J. (1982) Control and complementation. Linguistic Inquiry 13: 343–434Google Scholar
  6. Chierchia, G. 1989. Anaphora and attitudes de se. In Semantics and contextual expression, ed. R. Bartsch, J. van Benthem, and P. van Emde Boas, 1–30. Dordrecht: Foris.Google Scholar
  7. Cinque G. (1995) Adverbs and functional heads: A cross-linguistic perspective. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  8. Clements G. (1975) The logophoric pronoun in Ewe: Its role in discourse. The Journal of West African Languages 10: 141–177Google Scholar
  9. Cole, P., G. Hermon, and C.-T.J. Huang. 2005. Long distance anaphors: An Asian perspective. In The Blackwell companion to syntax, ed. M. Everaert and H. van Riemsdijk. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  10. Cole, P., G. Hermon, and C. L. Lee. 2001. Grammatical and discourse conditions on long distance reflexives in two Chinese dialects. In Long distance reflexives: Syntax and semantics 33. ed. P. Cole, G. Hermon, and C.-T. J. Huang, 1–46. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Endo, Y. 2007. Locality and information structure: A cartographic approach to Japanese. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  12. Hara Y. (2006) Implicatures and evidentiality of because complements at synatx–semantics–pragmatics interfaces. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4012: 118–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hornstein, N. 2001. Move! A minimalist theory of construal. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  14. Hornstein, N. 2003. On control. In Minimalist syntax, ed. R. Hendrick, 6–81. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  15. Huang C.-T. J. (1984) On the distribution and reference of empty pronouns. Linguistic Inquir 15: 531–574Google Scholar
  16. Huang, C.-T. J., and L. Liu. 2001. Logophoricity, attitudes and ziji at the interface. In Long distance reflexives: Syntax and semantics 33, ed. P. Cole, G. Hermon, and C.-T.J. Huang, 141–195. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  17. Iida, M. 1995. Context and binding in Japanese. Stanford University: CSLI.Google Scholar
  18. Katada F. (1991) The LF representation of anaphors. Linguistic Inquiry 22: 287–314Google Scholar
  19. Koopman H., Sportiche D. (1989) Pronouns, logical variables, and logophoricity in Abe. Linguistic Inquiry 20: 555–588Google Scholar
  20. Kuno S. (1972) Pronominalization, reflexivization and direct discourse. Linguistic Inquiry 3: 161–195Google Scholar
  21. Kuno, S. 1973. The structure of the Japanese language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  22. Kuno, S. 1978. Danwa-no bunpoo [The grammar of discourse]. Tokyo: Taishukan.Google Scholar
  23. Kuno S. (1987) Functional syntax: Anaphora, discourse and empathy. The University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  24. Kaburaki E. (1977) Empathy and syntax. Linguistic Inquiry 8: 627–672Google Scholar
  25. Kuroda, S.-Y. 1973a. On Kuno’s direct discourse analysis of the Japanese reflexive zibun. Papers in Japanese Linguistics 2: 136–147.Google Scholar
  26. Kuroda, S.-Y. 1973b. Where epistemology, style and grammar meet—A case study from Japanese. In A festschrift for Morris Halle, ed. S. Anderson and P. Kiparsky, 377–391. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  27. Lasnik H. (1989) Essays on Anaphora. Kluwer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nishigauchi, T. 2005. ‘Point of view’ and the logophoric anaphor. Theoretical and Applied Linguistics at Kobe Shoin 8: 107–132.Google Scholar
  29. Oshima D.-Y. (2004) Zibun revisited: Empathy, logophoricity and binding. University of Washington Working Papers in Linguistics 22: 175–190Google Scholar
  30. Oshima D.-Y. (2007) On empathic and logophoric binding. Research on Lanauge and Computation 5(1): 19–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pan, H. 2001. Why the blocking effect? In Long distance reflexives: Syntax and semantics 33, ed. P. Cole, G. Hermon, and C.-T.J. Huang, 279–316. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  32. Pesetsky, D. 1995. Zero syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  33. Pollard, C. and P. Xue. 2001. Syntactic and nonsyntactic constraints on long-distance reflexives. In Long distance reflexives: Syntax and semantics 33, ed. P. Cole, G. Hermon, and C.-T.J. Huang, 317–347. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  34. Sawada, M. and R. Larson. 2004. Adjunct clauses, presupposition and root transformations. In Northeastern Linguistic Society, vol. 34, ed. K. Moulton and M. Wolf, 517–528. Amherst: University of Massachusetts, GLSA.Google Scholar
  35. Sells P. (1987) Aspects of logophoricity. Linguistic Inquiry 18: 445–479Google Scholar
  36. Sigur\({\eth}\) sson, H.A. 1990. Long distance reflexives and moods in Icelandic. In Modern Icelandic syntax: Semantics and semantics 24, ed. J. Maling and A. Zaenan, 309–346. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  37. Speas M. (2004) Evidentiality, logophoricity and the syntactic representation of pragmatic features. Lingua 114(3): 255–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tenny C.L. (2006) Evidentiality, experiencers, and the syntax of sentience in Japanese. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 15: 245–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Williams E. (1980) Predication. Linguistic Inquiry 11: 203–238Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Program in Linguistic SciencesKobe Shoin Women’s University Graduate SchoolKobeJapan

Personalised recommendations