West Flemish V3 and the interaction of syntax and discourse

  • Liliane HaegemanEmail author
  • Ciro Greco
Original Paper


The empirical focus of this paper is what looks like a verb third (V3) pattern in West Flemish (WF) in which an adverbial modifier (typically a temporal or conditional adjunct) is followed by a non-inverted subject-initial verb second (V2) root clause. This pattern will be referred to as the non-inverted V3 pattern. This paper has two goals. The first and major aim is to document the WF non-inverted V3 pattern, detailing both its syntactic and its semantic properties, in order to make these data available to the research community at large. We also develop an analysis in line with the hypothesis, substantiated in the paper, that WF is a genuine V2 language and that the apparent V3 data in do not jeopardise this assumption. The core hypothesis is that the initial adjunct in V3 patterns is extra-sentential or ‘main clause-external’ (cf. Broekhuis and Corver in Syntax of Dutch. Verbs and verb phrases. Volume 3: Chapter 14: main clause-external elements, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, 2016., and that it combines with a full-fledged V2 clause by virtue of a discourse-structure (cf. Auer in Pragmatics 6:295–322, 1996). That the non-inverted V3 pattern is not acceptable in all varieties of Dutch is accounted for in terms of microvariation in the syntactic derivation of subject-initial V2 sentences.


West Flemish V2 V3 Discourse syntax Microvariation Subject-initial V2 Typology of adverbial modifiers (central, peripheral) 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



Versions of this paper were presented at the V2 conference (Cambridge 2016), at the annual meeting of the LAGB (York 2016), at the research seminar of Geneva University (2016), at the Dag van de Nederlandse Zinsbouw (Amsterdam 2016), and at the DGfS workshop on non-canonical verb positioning in main clauses (2016, Saarbrücken). We thank the various audiences for their helpful input. Special thanks go to Enoch Aboh, Terje Lohndal, Andrew Radford and Christine Salvesen for comments on earlier versions of the paper. We also warmly thank three anonymous reviewers for JCGL and Susi Wurmbrand for their valuable comments. We are very grateful to our Dutch and Flemish informants who helped us with the data. Needless to say, we remain solely responsible for the final text. This research was funded by Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Flanders (FWO), Odysseus grant 2009-Odysseus-Haegeman-G091409.


  1. Alexiadou, Artemis. 2016a. Exploring language in multi-language contexts. Language variation and change. Powerpoint presentation, University of Trondheim.Google Scholar
  2. Alexiadou, Artemis. 2016b. Language variation and change: The case of heritage grammars. Paper presented at New Ways of Analyzing Syntactic Variation. Ghent University, 19–20 May 2016.Google Scholar
  3. Antomo, Mailin. 2015. Abhängige Sätze in einem fragebasierten Diskursmodell. PhD. Dissertation, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen.Google Scholar
  4. Astruc-Aguilera, Lluisa. 2005. The form and function of extra-sentential elements. Cambridge Occasional Papers in Linguistics 2: 1–25.Google Scholar
  5. Auer, Peter. 1996. The pre-front field in spoken German and its relevance as a grammaticalization position. Pragmatics 6: 295–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Axel, Katrin. 2002. Zur diachronen Entwicklung der syntaktischen Integration linksperipherer Adverbialsätze im Deutschen. Beiträge sur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 124: 1–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Axel, Katrin. 2007. Studies on Old High German syntax. Left sentence periphery, verb placement and verb second. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barbiers, Sjef, Hans Bennis, Gunther De Vogelaer, Magda Devos, and Margreet van der Ham. 2005. Syntactic atlas of the Dutch dialects, vol. 1. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benincà, Paola. 2004. The left periphery of medieval Romance. Studi linguistici e filologici online 2: 243–297.Google Scholar
  10. Benincà, Paola. 2006. A detailed map of the left periphery of medieval Romance. In Crosslinguistic research in syntax and semantics: Negation, tense and clausal architecture, ed. Raffaella Zanuttini, 53–86. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Benincà, Paola. 2013. Caratteristiche del V2 romanzo. Lingue romanze antiche, Ladino Dolomitico e Portoghese. In Introduzione alla linguistica del Mòcheno, ed. Ermenegildo Bidese, and Federica Cognola, 65–84. Turin: Rosenberg and Sellier.Google Scholar
  12. Benincà, Paola, and Cecilia Poletto. 2004. Topic, focus, and V2. In The structure of CP and IP, ed. Luigi Rizzi, 52–75. Oxford and Boston: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Besten, Hans den. 1983/89. On the interaction of root transformations and lexical deletive rules. In On the formal syntax of the Westgermania, ed. Werner Abrahams, 47–131. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Reprinted in Hans den Besten. 1989. Studies in Westgermanic syntax. PhD. dissertation, Katholieke Universiteit Brabant. Amsterdam + Atlanta, GA: Rodopi.Google Scholar
  14. Bhatt, Rajesh. 2000. Covert modality in non-finite contexts. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  15. Biberauer, Theresa, and Ian Roberts. 2014. Rethinking formal hierarchies: A proposed unification. Cambridge Occasional Papers in Linguistics 7: 1–35.Google Scholar
  16. Boogaert, Ronny. 2007. Conditionele constructies met moest(en) en mocht(en) in Belgisch Nederlands en Nederlands Nederlands. 07.05.Google Scholar
  17. Branigan, Phil. 2005. The phase theoretic basis for subject-aux inversion. Ms. Memorial University.Google Scholar
  18. Breitbarth, Anne, and Liliane Haegeman. 2010. Continuity is change: The long tail of Jespersen’s cycle in Flemish. In Continuity and change in grammar, ed. Anne Breitbarth, Christopher Lucas, Sheila Watts, and David Willis, 61–76. Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Breitbarth, Anne and Liliane Haegeman. 2014. The distribution of preverbal en in (West) Flemish: Syntactic and interpretive properties. Lingua 147: 69–86. Special Issue Jespersen revisited (eds. Charlotte Meisner, Elisabeth Stark and Harald Völker).Google Scholar
  20. Broekhuis, Hans and Norbert Corver. 2016. Syntax of Dutch. Verbs and verb phrases. Volume 3: Chapter 14: Main clause-external elements. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  21. Chafe, Wallace L. 1976. Givenness, contrastiveness, definiteness, subjects, topics, and point of view. In Subject and topic, ed. Charles N. Li, 27–55. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  22. Cinque, Guglielmo. 1999. Adverbs and functional heads. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Cinque, Guglielmo. 2008. Two types of non-restrictive relatives. In Empirical issues in syntax and semantics 7, ed. Olivier Bonami, and Patricia Cabredo Hofherr, 99–137. Paris: CNRS.Google Scholar
  24. d’Avis, Franz Josef. 2004. In front of the prefield—Inside or outside the clause? In The syntax and semantics of the left periphery, ed. Horst Lohnstein, and Susanne Trissler, 139–177. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  25. De Vries, Mark. 2009. The left and right periphery in Dutch. The Linguistic Review 26: 291–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Debrabandere, Frans. 1976. De SVf-volgorde in zinnen met een aanloop. In Commissie voor Toponomie en Dialectologie, ed. Handelingen van de Koninklijke, 87–97. Tongeren: G. Michiels.Google Scholar
  27. Demirdache, Hamida, and Miriam Uribe-Etxebarria. 2004. The syntax of time adverbs. In The syntax of time, ed. Jaqueline Guéron, and Jacqueline Lecarme, 143–180. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  28. Demske, Ulrike. 2015. Adverbials and the left periphery: Syntax and information structure in the history of German. DIGS abstract.Google Scholar
  29. Devos, Magda, and Reinhild Vandekerckhove. 2005. Westvlaams. Tielt: Lannoo.Google Scholar
  30. Donaldson, Bryan. 2012. Initial subordinate clauses in Old French: Syntactic variation and the clausal left periphery. Lingua 122: 1021–1046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ebert, Christian, Cornelia Ebert, and Stefan Hinterwimmer. 2014. A unified analysis of conditionals as topics. Linguistics and Philosophy 37: 353–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Elsig, Martin. 2013. Subject-verb inversion in 13th century German and French: A comparative view. In Mutilingual individals and multilingual societies, ed. Kurt Braunmüller, and Christoph Gabriel, 223–240. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  33. Emonds, Joseph. 2004. Unspecified categories as the key to root constructions. In Peripheries, ed. David Adger, Cécile DeCat, and Georges Tsoulas, 75–121. Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Endriss, Cornelia. 2009. Quantificational topics. A scopal treatment of exceptional wide scope phenomena. Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  35. Frascarelli, Mara. 2016. Dislocations and framings. Ms. Università Roma Tre.Google Scholar
  36. Frey, Werner. 2012. Peripheral adverbial clauses, their licensing and the prefield in German. In Satzverknüpfung—Zur Interaktion von Form, Bedeutung und Diskursfunktion, ed. Eva Breindl, Gisella Ferraresi, and Anna Volodina, 41–77. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  37. Freywald, Ulrike, Katharina Mayr, Tiner Özçelik, and Heike Wiese. 2011. Kiezdeutsch as a multi ethnolect. In Ethnic styles of speaking in European metropolitan areas, ed. Friederike Kern, and Margret Selting, 45–73. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Freywald, Ulrike, Leonie Cornips, Natalia Ganuza, Ingvild Nistov and Toril Opsahl. 2013. Urban vernaculars in contemporary northern Europe: Innovative variants of V2 in Germany, Norway and Sweden. Working Papers in Urban Language and Literacies 119. [Online-Publikation].Google Scholar
  39. Freywald, Ulrike, Leonie Cornips, Natalia Ganuza, Ingvild Nistov, and Toril Opsahl. 2015. Beyond verb second—A matter of novel information-structural effects? Evidence from German, Swedish, Norwegian and Dutch. In Language, youth and identity in the 21st century: Linguistic practices across urban spaces, ed. Jacomine Nortier, and Bente A. Svendsen, 73–92. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gärtner, Hans-Martin. 2002. On the force of V2-declaratives. Theoretical Linguistics 28: 33–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gallego, Ángel. 2010. Phase theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ganuza, Natalia. 2008. Syntactic variation in the Swedish of adolescents in multilingual urban settings. PhD. Dissertation, Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm University.Google Scholar
  43. Giorgi, Alessandra. 2014. Prosodic signals as syntactic formatives in the left periphery. In On peripheries, exploring clause initial and clause final positions, ed. Anna Cardinaletti, Guglielmo Cinque, and Yoshio Endo, 161–188. Tokyo: Hituzi Syobe Publishing.Google Scholar
  44. Greco, Ciro and Liliane Haegeman. 2016. Frame setters and the macro variation of subject-initial V2. lingbuzz/003226.Google Scholar
  45. Griffiths, James, and Mark de Vries. 2013. The syntactic integration of appositives: Evidence from fragments and ellipsis. Linguistic Inquiry 44: 332–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Haeberli, Eric. 2002. Observations on the loss of Verb Second in the history of English. In Studies in comparative Germanic syntax, ed. Jan-Wouter Zwart, and Werner Abraham, 245–272. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Haegeman, Liliane. 1996. Verb second, the split CP and null subjects in early Dutch finite clauses. GenGenP.
  48. Haegeman, Liliane. 2002. Anchoring to the speaker, adverbial clauses and the structure of CP. Georgetown University Working Papers in Theoretical Linguistics 2: 117–180.Google Scholar
  49. Haegeman, Liliane. 2003. Conditional clauses: External and internal syntax. Mind and Language 18: 317–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Haegeman, Liliane. 2006. Conditionals, factives and the left periphery. Lingua 116: 1651–1669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Haegeman, Liliane. 2012. Adverbial clauses, main clause phenomena and the composition of the left periphery. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Haiman, John. 1978. Conditionals are topics. Language 54: 565–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Heycock, Caroline. 2006. Embedded root phenomena. In The Blackwell companion to syntax, eds. Martin Everaert and Henk van Riemsdijk. Vol II, Chapter 23. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  54. Hinterhölzl, Roland. 2017. Complementizer agreement and referential anchoring: From movement to agree. Paper presented at The Syntax Interface Lectures. University of Utrecht, 20 February 2017.Google Scholar
  55. Holmberg, Anders. 2015. Verb second. In Syntax. An international handbook of contemporary syntactic research. 2nd edition, eds. Tibor Kiss and Artemis Alexiadou, 343–384. HSK Series. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter Verlag.Google Scholar
  56. Hooper, Joan B., and Sandra A. Thompson. 1973. On the applicability of root transformations. Linguistic Inquiry 4: 465–497.Google Scholar
  57. Hornstein, Norbert. 1990. As time goes by: Tense and universal grammar. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  58. Ingham, Richard. 2006. Syntactic change in Anglo-Norman and Continental French chronicles: Was there a Middle Anglo Norman? Journal of French Language Studies 16: 25–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jacobs, J. 1984. Funktionale Satzperspektive und Illokutionssemantik. Linguistische Berichte 91: 25–58.Google Scholar
  60. Koster, Jan. 2000. Extraposition as parallel construal. Ms, University of Groningen.Google Scholar
  61. Krifka, Manfred. 1992. A compositional semantics for multiple focus constructions. In Informationsstruktur und Grammatik, Linguistische Berichte Sonderhefte, vol. 4, ed. Joachim Jacobs, 17–53. Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Krifka, Manfred. 2008. Basic notions of information structure. Acta Linguistica Hungarica 55: 243–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Krifka, Manfred. 2014. Embedding illocutionary acts. In Recursion, complexity in cognition. Studies in theoretical psycholinguistics, vol. 43, ed. Tom Roeper, and Margaret Speas, 125–155. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  64. Labelle, Marie. 2007. Clausal architecture in Early Old French. Lingua 117: 289–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ledgeway, Adam. 2012. From Latin to Romance. Morphosyntactic typology and change. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Legate, Julie. 2011. Under-inheritance. Paper presented at NELS 42, University of Toronto, November 12.Google Scholar
  67. Lybaert, Chloé, Bernard De Clerck, Jorien Saelens and Ludovic Decuypere. 2017. A corpus-based analysis of V2 variation in West Flemish and French Flemish dialects. Journal of Germanic Linguistics. Google Scholar
  68. Maienborn, Claudia. 2001. On the position and interpretation of locative modifiers. Natural Language Semantics 9: 191–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mathieu, Eric. 2013. The left periphery in Old French. In Research on Old French: The state of the art, ed. Deborah Arteaga, 321–350. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  70. Meinunger, André. 2004. Verb position, verbal mood and the anchoring (potential) of sentences. In The syntax and semantics of the left periphery, ed. Horst Lohnstein, and Susanne Trissler, 313–341. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  71. Mikkelsen, Line. 2015. VP anaphora and verb-second order in Danish. Journal of Linguistics 51: 595–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Poletto, Cecilia. 2002. On V2 and V3 sequences in Rhaetoromance. In Syntactic microvariation, eds. Sjef Barbiers, Leonie Cornips and Susanne van der Kleij, 214–242.
  73. Poletto, Cecilia. 2005. and e as CP expletives in Old Italian. In Grammaticalization and parametric variation, ed. Montserrat Batllori, Maria-Lluïsa Hernanz, Carme Picallo, and Francesco Roca, 206–235. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Poletto, Cecilia. 2013. On V2 types. In The Bloomsbury companion to syntax, ed. Sylvia Luraghi, and Claudia Parodi, 154–164. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  75. Postma, Gertjan. 2011. Modifying the hearer. The nature of the left periphery of main clauses in Frisian and Dutch. Paper presented at CGSW 26, Meertens Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, June 23–24.Google Scholar
  76. Postma, Gertjan. 2017. The rise and fall of the passive auxiliary weorðan and strict Verb-Second in the history of English. In Word order change in acquisition and language contact: Essays in honour of Ans van Kemenade, ed. Bettelou Los, and Pieter de Haan. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar
  77. Reichenbach, Hans. 1947. Symbolic logic. Berkeley: University of California.Google Scholar
  78. Rizzi, Luigi. 1997. The fine structure of the left periphery. In Elements of grammar, ed. Liliane Haegeman, 281–337. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rizzi, Luigi, and Ur Shlonsky. 2007. Strategies of subject extraction. In Interfaces + recursion = language, ed. Uli Sauerland, and Hans-Martin Gärtner, 115–160. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  80. Ryckeboer, Hugo. 2004. Fransvlaams. Lannoo: Tielt.Google Scholar
  81. Saelens, Jorien. 2014. Topicalisering zonder inversie: Een ingveonisme? Master paper, Ghent University.Google Scholar
  82. Salvesen, Christine. 2013. Topics and the left periphery: A comparison of Old French and Modern Germanic. In In search of universal grammar: From Old Norse to Zoque, ed. Terje Lohndal, 131–174. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Salvesen, Christine. 2017. Resumptive particles and V2. Ms. UiO.Google Scholar
  84. Salvi, Giampaolo. 2004. La formazione della struttura di frase romanza: Ordine delle parole e clitici dal latino alle lingue romanze antiche. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie, Bd. 323. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.Google Scholar
  85. Schalowski, Sören. 2015. From an adverbial to a discourse connective: The function of dann and danach in non-canonical prefields of German. In Connectives as a functional category: Between clauses and discourse units, ed. Mirjam Fried, and Eva Leheckova. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar
  86. Schwartz, Bonnie, and Sten Vikner. 1996. The verb always leaves IP in V2 clauses. In Parameters and functional heads, ed. Adriana Belletti, and Luigi Rizzi, 11–62. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  87. Searle, John. 1969. Speech acts: An essay in the philosophy of language. London: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sigurdsson, Halldor. 2016. The Split T analysis. In Finiteness matters: On finiteness related phenomena in natural languages, ed. Kristin Eide, 79–92. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Skårup, P. 1975. Les premières zones de la proposition en ancien français. Revue Romane, special issue 6.Google Scholar
  90. Speyer, Augustin. 2008. Doppelte Vorfeldbesetzung im heutigen Deutsch und im Früghneuhochdeutschen. Linguistische Berichte 2016: 455–485.Google Scholar
  91. Steiner, Britanny. 2014. The evolution of information structure and verb second in the history of French. PhD dissertation. University of Indiana, Bloomington.Google Scholar
  92. Stowell, Tim. 1982. The tense of infinitives. Linguistic Inquiry 13: 561–570.Google Scholar
  93. Stowell, Tim. 1993. The syntax of tense. Manuscript, University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  94. Travis, Lisa. 1984. Parameters and effects of word order variation. PhD dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  95. Truckenbrodt, Hubert. 2006a. On the semantic motivation of syntactic verb movement to C in German. In Theoretical Linguistics 32, ed. Hans-Martin Gärtner, 257–306.Google Scholar
  96. Truckenbrodt, Hubert. 2006b. Replies to the comments by Gärtner, Plunze and Zimmermann, Portner, Potts, Reis, and Zaefferer. In Theoretical Linguistics 32, ed. Hans-Martin Gärtner, 387–410.Google Scholar
  97. van Craenenbroeck, Jeroen, and Liliane Haegeman. 2007. The derivation of subject-initial V2. Linguistic Inquiry 38: 167–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vanacker, Valère F. 1977. Syntactische overeenkomsten tussen Frans-Vlaamse en Westvlaamse dialekten. In: De Franse Nederlanden. Les Pays Bas français. Jaarboek. Ons Erfdeel, 206–216. Rekkem.Google Scholar
  99. Vance, Barbara. 1997. Syntactic change in medieval French. Verb second and null subjects. Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vance, Barbara, Bryan Donaldson, and B. Devan Steiner. 2009. V2 Loss in Old French and Old Occitan: The role of fronted clauses. In Romance Linguistics 2009: Selected papers from the 39th Linguistic Symposium on Romance languages (March 2009), ed. Romance Linguistics, 301–320. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  101. Vanelli, Laura, Lorenzo Renzi, and Paola Benincà. 1985. Typologie des pronoms sujets dans les langues romanes. In Linguistique descriptive: Phonétique, morphologie et lexique. Actes du XVIIe Congrès International de Linguistique et Philologie Romanes. Aix-en-Provence: Université de Provence.Google Scholar
  102. Velde, John te. 2013. West Germanic left-dislocated adverbial clauses: The role of the semantic interface. Interdisciplinary Journal for Germanic Linguistics and Semiotic Analysis 18: 163–206.Google Scholar
  103. Velde, John te. 2016. Temporal adverbs in the Kiezdeutsch Left Periphery: Combining late merge with deaccentuation for V3. Studia Linguistica. Online version.Google Scholar
  104. Vercouillie, J. 1885. Spraakleer van het Westvlaamsch dialect. Onze Volkstaal 2: 3–47.Google Scholar
  105. Walkden, G. 2015. Verb-third in early West Germanic: A comparative perspective. In Syntax over time, ed. Theresa Biberauer, and George Walkden, 236–248. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Walkden, G. 2017. Language contact and V3 in Germanic varieties new and old. Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 20: 49–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wegener, Heide. 1993. Weil—Das hat schon seinen Grund. Zur Verbstellung in Kausalsätzen mit weil in gegenwärtigen Deutschen. Deutsche Sprache 21: 298–305.Google Scholar
  108. Wiese, Heike. 2009. Grammatical innovation in multi ethnic urban Europe: New linguistic practices among adolescents. Lingua 119: 782–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wiese, Heike. 2013. What can new urban dialects tell us about internal language dynamics? The power of language diversity. Linguistische Berichte Special Issue 19: 207–245.Google Scholar
  110. Wiese, Heike. and Ines Rehbein. 2016. Coherence in new urban dialects: A case study. Lingua 172–3: 45–61. Special issue: Coherence, covariation and bricolage. Various approaches to the systematicity of language variation, eds. Frans Hinskens and Gregory R. Guy. .Google Scholar
  111. Williams, Edwin. 1977. Discourse and logical form. Linguistic Inquiry 8: 101–139.Google Scholar
  112. Willis, David. 1998. Syntactic change in Welsh. A study of the loss of Verb Second. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  113. Wolfe, Sam. 2015. The nature of Old Spanish Verb Second reconsidered. Lingua 164: 132–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wolfe, Sam. 2016. On the left periphery of V2 languages. Selected papers from the 41st Incontro di Grammatica Generativa. Rivista di Grammatica Generativa 38: 287–310.Google Scholar
  115. Zagona, Karen. 1990. Times as temporal argument structure. Unpublished ms., presented at the conference Time in Language, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  116. Zwart, C.Jan-Wouter. 1997a. Morphosyntax of verb movement: A minimalist approach to the syntax of Dutch. Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zwart, C.Jan-Wouter. 1997b. The Germanic SOV languages and the universal base hypothesis. In The new comparative syntax, ed. Liliane Haegeman, 246–264. London: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Group Dialing, Department of LinguisticsGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  2. 2.ToosolabsSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations