Family Functioning in Latinx Families of Children with ADHD: The Role of Parental Gender and Acculturation

  • Anne C. MalkoffEmail author
  • Margaret Grace
  • Theresa L. Kapke
  • Alyson C. Gerdes
Original Paper



It has been well-established that parents of children with ADHD report significantly higher levels of parenting stress and home chaos, and lower levels of parental efficacy than parents of children without ADHD. Unfortunately, most of the extant ADHD literature has focused on European American children and families, resulting in a paucity of research focusing on ethnic minority families of children with ADHD. The current study aimed to expand what is known about Latinx parents of children with ADHD by exploring contextual and cultural factors, such as parental gender and acculturation, which may account for variations in parenting experiences within this population.


The present study utilized secondary data analysis to analyze ratings of parenting stress, home chaos, and parental efficacy among a sample of Latinx mothers and fathers of children with ADHD (n= 46 dyads).


Results indicated that Latinx mothers of children with ADHD reported higher levels of parenting stress than Latinx fathers of children with ADHD; however, no significant parental gender differences were found in ratings of parental efficacy or home chaos. Additionally, several significant relationships were found between parental acculturation and family functioning variables.


Latinx families of children with ADHD are an understudied and underserved population within the field of clinical psychology. The current study provides critical information on Latinx family functioning within the context of ADHD treatment, specifically pertaining to the complex interplay of parenting and acculturation variables.


ADHD Latinx families Parental gender Acculturation Mental health disparities 


Author Contributions

A.C.M.: Wrote the paper, conducted statistical analyses, assisted with execution of larger study. M.G.: Assisted with execution of larger study, collaborated in editing of the manuscript. T.L.K.: Assisted with execution of larger study. A.C.G.: Designed and led the larger study on which this study was based, assisted with the design and execution of this study and collaborated with the editing of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Review Board at Marquette University and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The present study is a secondary data analysis of a larger study which was approved by the Marquette University Institutional Review Board.

Informed Consent

Informed consent/assent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentMarquette UniversityMilwaukeeUSA

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