Severity and Frequency of Antisocial Behaviors: Late Adolescence/Young Adulthood Antisocial Behavior Index

  • Cristiane S. DuarteEmail author
  • Jaimie Klotz
  • Katherine Elkington
  • Patrick E. Shrout
  • Glorisa Canino
  • Ruth Eisenberg
  • Ana Ortin
  • Marjorine Henriquez-Castillo
  • Thomas Corbeil
  • Hector Bird
Original Paper



An Antisocial Behavior index (ASB-I) for children (ages 5 to 15) was previously developed by obtaining clinician ratings of the seriousness or severity of various behaviors with the goal of improving assessment of antisocial behaviors (ASB) longitudinally. We extend the instrument for use in late adolescence/young adulthood, as socially unacceptable conduct manifests differently across developmental stages. As in the original study, this extension (the ASB-I YA) is based on independent ratings of ASB seriousness/severity during late adolescence/young adulthood (16 to 28 years) made by nine experienced clinicians.


The items rated were drawn from the Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder schedules of the NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) and the Elliott Delinquency scales, plus new or modified items developmentally appropriate for late adolescence/young adulthood. Specific ratings were based on the developmental stage and reported frequency of the behaviors. The study also describes the distribution of ASB-I YA scores in the Boricua Youth Study.


Reliability was substantial for the average ratings of each subscale and for the total score [ICC(3,9): 0.88 to 0.95]. Certain items were rated as more severe when occurring in late adolescence/young adulthood compared to childhood/early adolescence (e.g., hitting someone on purpose); however, most ratings were similar across developmental periods. Most importantly, raters reliably and consistently rated the items describing ASB in young adulthood, allowing the computation of the ASB-I YA score 8.


Together with the ASB-I, the ASB-I YA can further advance the study of ASB progression from childhood into young adulthood.


Developmental psychopathology Antisocial behaviors Classification Psychometrics Longitudinal measures Young adulthood 



The authors would like to thank Dr Terrie Moffitt for providing antisocial behavior items developmentally specific to the young adulthood period to be used in the Boricua Youth Study. The authors are also thankful to all Boricua Youth Study participants, study staff and the clinicians who so graciously donated their time and expertise.

Author Contributions

C.S.D.: designed and executed the study, planned data analyses, and wrote the paper. J.K.: supported execution of the study and data analysis, and wrote the paper. K.E.: collaborated with the design and writing and editing of the study. P.E.S.: collaborated in the design and data analysis, and wrote part of the paper. G.C.: collaborated with the design and writing and editing of the study. R.E.: analyzed the data and wrote part of the results. A.O.: collaborated with the design, data collection and writing and editing of the study. M.H.-C.: collaborated with the design, data collection and writing of the study. T.C.: analyzed the data and wrote part of the results. HB: designed and executed the study, planned data analyses, and writing and editing of the final paper.


The study is supported by the National Institutes of Health (grant number MH098374). The Boricua Youth Study was funded by the National Institute of Health [MH56401 (Bird), DA033172 (Duarte), AA020191 (Duarte), MH098374 (Alegria, Canino, Duarte)].

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

The research was conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committees (New York State Psychiatric Institute and University of Puerto Rico).

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10826_2019_1661_MOESM1_ESM.docx (35 kb)
Supplementary Information


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristiane S. Duarte
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jaimie Klotz
    • 1
  • Katherine Elkington
    • 2
  • Patrick E. Shrout
    • 3
  • Glorisa Canino
    • 4
  • Ruth Eisenberg
    • 5
  • Ana Ortin
    • 6
  • Marjorine Henriquez-Castillo
    • 1
  • Thomas Corbeil
    • 1
  • Hector Bird
    • 2
  1. 1.New York State Psychiatric InstituteColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.New York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.University of Puerto Rico Medical CampusSan JuanUSA
  5. 5.Albert Einstein College of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  6. 6.Hunter College, City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA

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