Advertisement

Severity and Frequency of Antisocial Behaviors: Late Adolescence/Young Adulthood Antisocial Behavior Index

  • Cristiane S. DuarteEmail author
  • Jaimie Klotz
  • Katherine Elkington
  • Patrick E. Shrout
  • Glorisa Canino
  • Ruth Eisenberg
  • Ana Ortin
  • Marjorine Henriquez-Castillo
  • Thomas Corbeil
  • Hector Bird
Original Paper
  • 13 Downloads

Abstract

Objectives

An Antisocial Behavior index (ASB-I) for children (ages 5 to 15) was previously developed by obtaining clinician ratings of the seriousness or severity of various behaviors with the goal of improving assessment of antisocial behaviors (ASB) longitudinally. We extend the instrument for use in late adolescence/young adulthood, as socially unacceptable conduct manifests differently across developmental stages. As in the original study, this extension (the ASB-I YA) is based on independent ratings of ASB seriousness/severity during late adolescence/young adulthood (16 to 28 years) made by nine experienced clinicians.

Methods

The items rated were drawn from the Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder schedules of the NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) and the Elliott Delinquency scales, plus new or modified items developmentally appropriate for late adolescence/young adulthood. Specific ratings were based on the developmental stage and reported frequency of the behaviors. The study also describes the distribution of ASB-I YA scores in the Boricua Youth Study.

Results

Reliability was substantial for the average ratings of each subscale and for the total score [ICC(3,9): 0.88 to 0.95]. Certain items were rated as more severe when occurring in late adolescence/young adulthood compared to childhood/early adolescence (e.g., hitting someone on purpose); however, most ratings were similar across developmental periods. Most importantly, raters reliably and consistently rated the items describing ASB in young adulthood, allowing the computation of the ASB-I YA score 8.

Conclusions

Together with the ASB-I, the ASB-I YA can further advance the study of ASB progression from childhood into young adulthood.

Keywords

Developmental psychopathology Antisocial behaviors Classification Psychometrics Longitudinal measures Young adulthood 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr Terrie Moffitt for providing antisocial behavior items developmentally specific to the young adulthood period to be used in the Boricua Youth Study. The authors are also thankful to all Boricua Youth Study participants, study staff and the clinicians who so graciously donated their time and expertise.

Author Contributions

C.S.D.: designed and executed the study, planned data analyses, and wrote the paper. J.K.: supported execution of the study and data analysis, and wrote the paper. K.E.: collaborated with the design and writing and editing of the study. P.E.S.: collaborated in the design and data analysis, and wrote part of the paper. G.C.: collaborated with the design and writing and editing of the study. R.E.: analyzed the data and wrote part of the results. A.O.: collaborated with the design, data collection and writing and editing of the study. M.H.-C.: collaborated with the design, data collection and writing of the study. T.C.: analyzed the data and wrote part of the results. HB: designed and executed the study, planned data analyses, and writing and editing of the final paper.

Funding

The study is supported by the National Institutes of Health (grant number MH098374). The Boricua Youth Study was funded by the National Institute of Health [MH56401 (Bird), DA033172 (Duarte), AA020191 (Duarte), MH098374 (Alegria, Canino, Duarte)].

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

The research was conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committees (New York State Psychiatric Institute and University of Puerto Rico).

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10826_2019_1661_MOESM1_ESM.docx (35 kb)
Supplementary Information

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for child behavior checklist/4-18 and 1991 profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  2. Alegria, M., Shrout, P. E., Canino, G., Alvarez, K., Wang, Y. & Bird, H. et al. (2019). The effect of minority status and social context on the development of depression and anxiety in Puerto Rican youth.World Psychiatry, 18(3), 298–307.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bird, H. R., Canino, G. J., Davies, M., Duarte, C. S., Febo, V. & Ramirez, R. et al. (2006). A study of disruptive behavior disorders in Puerto Rican youth: I. background, design, and survey methods. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(9), 1032–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bird, H. R., Davies, M., Canino, G., Loeber, R., Rubio-Stipec, M. & Shen, S. (2005). Classification of antisocial behaviors along severity and frequency parameters. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14(3), 325–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bird, H. R., Shrout, P. E., Davies, M., Canino, G., Duarte, C. S. & Shen, S. et al. (2007). Longitudinal development of antisocial behaviors in young and early adolescent Puerto Rican children at two sites. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(1), 5–14.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000242243.23044.ac.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bravo, M., Ribera, J., Rubio-Stipec, M., Canino, G., Shrout, P. & Ramírez, R. et al. (2001). Test-retest reliability of the Spanish version of the diagnostic interview schedule for children (DISC-IV). Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29(5), 433–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burke, J. D., Loeber, R., Lahey, B. B. & Rathouz, P. J. (2005). Developmental transitions among affective and behavioral disorders in adolescent boys. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(11), 1200–1210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen, P., Brown, J. & Smailes, E. (2001). Child abuse and neglect and the development of mental disorders in the general population. Development and Psychopathology, 13(4), 981–999.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Duarte, C. S., Canino, G., Alegria, M., Ramos-Olazagasti, M., Vila, D., Miranda, P. et al. (n.d.). Developmental psychopathology & ethnicity: The young adulthood assessment of the Boricua Youth Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  12. Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D. & Ageton, S. S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Boulder, CO: Behavioral Research Institute.Google Scholar
  13. Fairchild, G., Passamonti, L., Hurford, G., Hagan, C. C., von dem Hagen, E. A. & van Goozen, S. H. et al. (2011). Brain structure abnormalities in early-onset and adolescent-onset conduct disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(6), 624–633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hudziak, J. J., Achenbach, T. M., Althoff, R. R. & Pine, D. S. (2007). A dimensional approach to developmental psychopathology. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 16(S1), S16–S23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hyatt, C. J., Haney-Caron, E. & Stevens, M. C. (2012). Cortical thickness and folding deficits in conduct-disordered adolescents. Biological Psychiatry, 72(3), 207–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jacobson, K. C., Prescott, C. A. & Kendler, K. S. (2002). Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on the development of antisocial behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 14(2), 395–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jung, H., Herrenkohl, T. I., Lee, J. O., Hemphill, S. A., Heerde, J. A. & Skinner, M. L. (2017). Gendered pathways from child abuse to adult crime through internalizing and externalizing behaviors in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 32(18), 2724–2750.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kellam, S. G., Brown, C. H., Poduska, J. M., Ialongo, N. S., Wang, W. & Toyinbo, P. et al. (2008). Effects of a universal classroom behavior management program in first and second grades on young adult behavioral, psychiatric, and social outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 95(S1), S5–S28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Klump, K. L. & Burt, S. A. (2006). The Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR): genetic, environmental and neurobiological influences on behavior across development. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9(6), 971–977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lahey, B. B., Zald, D. H., Hakes, J. K., Krueger, R. F. & Rathouz, P. J. (2014). Patterns of heterotypic continuity associated with the cross-sectional correlational structure of prevalent mental disorders in adults. JAMA Psychiatry, 71(9), 989–996.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Laird, R. D., Pettit, G. S., Dodge, K. A. & Bates, J. E. (2005). Peer relationship antecedents of delinquent behavior in late adolescence: is there evidence of demographic group differences in developmental processes? Development and Psychopathology, 17(1), 127–144.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lee, J. O., Herrenkohl, T. I., Jung, H., Skinner, M. L. & Klika, J. B. (2015). Longitudinal examination of peer and partner influences on gender-specific pathways from child abuse to adult crime. Child Abuse & Neglect, 47, 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lewin, L. M., Davis, B. & Hops, H. (1999). Childhood social predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior: gender differences in predictive accuracy and efficacy. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27(4), 277–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Loeber, R. (1990). Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review, 10(1), 1–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Loeber, R. (1991). Antisocial behavior: more enduring than changeable? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(3), 393–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Van Kammen, W. B. & Farrington, D. P. (1989). Development of a new measure of self-reported antisocial behavior for young children: prevalence and reliability. In M. W. Klein (ed), Cross-national research in self-reported crime and delinquency (pp. 203–225). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Luk, J. W., Worley, M. J., Winiger, E., Trim, R. S., Hopfer, C. J. & Hewitt, J. K. et al. (2016). Risky driving and sexual behaviors as developmental outcomes of co-occurring substance use and antisocial behavior. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 169, 19–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: a developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100(4), 674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moffitt, T. E. & Caspi, A. (2001). Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females. Development and Psychopathology, 13(2), 355–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Moffit, T. E., Caspi, A., Dickson, N., Silva, P. & Stanton, W. (1996). Childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial conduct problems in males: natural history from ages 3 to 18 years. Development and Psychopathology, 8(2), 399–424.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400007161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Harrington, H. & Milne, B. J. (2002). Males on the life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: follow-up at age 26 years. Development and Psychopathology, 14(1), 179–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Morcillo, C., Duarte, C. S., Shen, S., Blanco, C., Canino, G. & Bird, H. R. (2011). Parental familism and antisocial behaviors: development, gender, and potential mechanisms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(5), 471–479.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2011.01.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nomura, Y., Rajendran, K., Brooks-Gunn, J. & Newcorn, J. H. (2008). Roles of perinatal problems on adolescent antisocial behaviors among children born after 33 completed weeks: a prospective investigation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(10), 1108–1117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Odgers, C. L., Caspi, A., Broadbent, J. M., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J. & Harrington, H. et al. (2007). Prediction of differential adult health burden by conduct problem subtypes in males. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(4), 476–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Okuda, M., Martins, S. S., Wall, M., Chen, C., Santaella-Tenorio, J. & Ramos-Olazagasti, M. et al. (2018). Do parenting behaviors modify the way sensation seeking influences antisocial behaviors? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 60(2), 169–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Passamonti, L., Fairchild, G., Goodyer, I. M., Hurford, G., Hagan, C. C., Rowe, J. B. & Calder, A. J. (2010). Neural abnormalities in early-onset and adolescence-onset conduct disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(7), 729–738.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rivera, F., Lopez, I., Guarnaccia, P., Ramirez, R., Canino, G. & Bird, H. R. (2011). Perceived discrimination and antisocial behaviors in Puerto Rican children. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 13(3), 453–461.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-010-9421-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Rutter, M., Kim-Cohen, J. & Maughan, B. (2006). Continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(3–4), 276–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shaffer, D., Fisher, P., Lucas, C. P., Dulcan, M. K. & Schwab-Stone, M. E. (2000). NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (NIMH DISC-IV): description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(1), 28–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shevlin, M., McElroy, E. & Murphy, J. (2017). Homotypic and heterotypic psychopathological continuity: a child cohort study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 52(9), 1135–1145.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shiner, R. L. (2000). Linking childhood personality with adaptation: evidence for continuity and change across time into late adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(2), 310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shrout, P. E. (1998). Measurement reliability and agreement in psychiatry. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 7(3), 301–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shrout, P. E. & Fleiss, J. L. (1979). Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 86(2), 420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shrout, P. E. & Lane, S. P. (2012). Reliability. In H. Cooper (ed.), APA handbook of research methods in psychology, Vol 1: Foundations, planning, measures, and psychometrics (pp. 643–660). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tubman, J. G., Windle, M. & Windle, R. C. (1996). The onset and cross-temporal patterning of sexual intercourse in middle adolescence: prospective relations with behavioral and emotional problems. Child Development, 67(2), 327–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wang, P., Niv, S., Tuvblad, C., Raine, A. & Baker, L. A. (2013). The genetic and environmental overlap between aggressive and non-aggressive antisocial behavior in children and adolescents using the self-report delinquency interview (SR-DI). Journal of Criminal Justice, 41(5), 277–284.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wei, C., Eisenberg, R. E., Ramos-Olazagasti, M. A., Wall, M., Chen, C. & Bird, H. R. et al. (2017). Developmental psychopathology in a racial/ethnic minority group: are cultural risks relevant? Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(12), 1081–1088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristiane S. Duarte
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jaimie Klotz
    • 1
  • Katherine Elkington
    • 2
  • Patrick E. Shrout
    • 3
  • Glorisa Canino
    • 4
  • Ruth Eisenberg
    • 5
  • Ana Ortin
    • 6
  • Marjorine Henriquez-Castillo
    • 1
  • Thomas Corbeil
    • 1
  • Hector Bird
    • 2
  1. 1.New York State Psychiatric InstituteColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.New York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.University of Puerto Rico Medical CampusSan JuanUSA
  5. 5.Albert Einstein College of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  6. 6.Hunter College, City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations