Parents’ Impact on Children’s School Performance: Marital Satisfaction, Parental Involvement, and Mental Health

  • Ming Lui
  • Gilbert K. Lau
  • Vicky C. TamEmail author
  • Hiu-Man Chiu
  • Sandy S. Li
  • Kuen-Fung Sin
Original Paper



The present study aims to formulate a conceptual model of the mediating factors between parents’ marital satisfaction and children’s academic performance, with a sample drawn from Hong Kong Chinese parents and children. The mediators included parental involvement, parents’ psychopathological symptoms, and children’s internalizing behavior and school engagement.


Survey responses from 507 Grade 4–6 children and their parents, who were primary caregivers, were analyzed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the internal structures of the seven scales, and the finalized scales have moderate to high reliabilities (Cronbach’s α values ranging from 0.74 to 0.95). Structural equation modeling analysis was applied to test the relationships between the latent variables in the proposed model.


Structural equation modeling revealed that parents’ marital satisfaction had a significant indirect effect on children’s academic performance via two pathways: (1) with parents’ psychopathological symptoms, children’s internalizing behaviors, and school engagement as mediators; (2) with parental involvement and school engagement as mediators. Marital satisfaction had no direct effect on school engagement or on academic performance.


Our findings highlighted the importance of parents maintaining harmonious relationships with their spouses and being highly involved in their children’s education, in order to provide an optimal social environment to promote children’s academic development.


Marital satisfaction Parental involvement Mental health School engagement Academic performance 


Author Contributions

ML designed the study and wrote the paper. GKL analyzed the data and wrote part of the paper. VCT collaborated in the writing and editing of the manuscript. HC assisted with the data collection, analyses, and wrote part of the manuscript. SSL provided feedback on the data analyses. KFS was involved in the conceptualization of the study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments, or comparable ethical standards. This study was approved by of the Education University of Hong Kong’s Human Research Ethics Committee.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10826_2019_1655_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (506 kb)
Supplementary Information


  1. Beidel, D. C., & Turner, S. M. (1997). At risk for anxiety: I. Psychopathology in the offspring of anxious parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(7), 918–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bonds, D. D., & Gondoli, D. M. (2007). Examining the process by which marital adjustment affects maternal warmth: the role of coparenting support as a mediator. Journal of Family Psychology, 21(2), 288–296. Scholar
  3. Booth, A., & Amato, P. R. (1994). Parental marital quality, parental divorce, and relations with parents. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 56, 21–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bornstein, M. H. (2006). Parenting science and practice. In W. Damon, R. M. Lerner, K. A. Reninger & I. E. Siegel (Eds), Handbook of child psychology, Volume 4, Child psychology in practice. 6th ed. (pp. 893–949). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. Bowen, M. (1966). The use of family theory in clinical practice. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 7(5), 345–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buehler, C., & Gerard, J. M. (2002). Marital conflict, ineffective parenting, and children's and adolescents’ maladjustment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(1), 78–92. Scholar
  7. Bush, K. R., & Peterson, G. W. (2013). Parent-child relationships in diverse contexts. In G. W. Peterson & K. R. Bush (Eds), Handbook of marriage and the family (pp. 275–302). New York, NY: Springer Science.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Castro, M., Expósito-Casas, E., López-Martín, E., Lizasoain, L., Navarro-Asencio, E., & Gaviria, J. L. (2015). Parental involvement on student academic achievement: a meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 14, 33–46. Scholar
  9. Cheung, C. K., & Bagley, C. (1998). Validating an American scale in Hong Kong: the center of epidemiological studies depression scale (CES-D). The Journal of Psychology, 132, 169–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Coiro, M. J., & Emery, R. E. (1998). Do marriage problems affect fathering more than mothering? A quantitative and qualitative review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 1(1), 23–40. Scholar
  11. Dempster, A. P., Laird, N. M., & Rubin, D. B. (1977). Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological), 39, 1–38.Google Scholar
  12. DeVellis, R. F. (2011). Scale development: theory and application. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
  13. Dush, K. C., Taylor, M. G., & Kroeger, R. A. (2008). Marital happiness and psychological well-being across the life course. Family Relations, 57(2), 211–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Easterbrooks, M. A., & Emde, R. N. (1988). Marital and parent-child relationships: the role of affect in the family system. In R. A. Hinde & J. Stevenson-Hinde (Eds), Relationships within families: mutual influences (pp. 83–103). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Epstein, J. L., Coates, L., Salinas, K. C., Sanders, M. G., & Simon, B. S. (1997). School, family and community partnerships. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.Google Scholar
  16. Evans, J. D. (1996). Straightforward statistics for the behavioral sciences. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  17. Fan, W., & Williams, C. M. (2010). The effects of parental involvement on students’ academic self-efficacy, engagement and intrinsic motivation. Educational Psychology, 30(1), 53–74. Scholar
  18. Fan, X., & Chen, M. (2001). Parental involvement and students' academic achievement: a meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 13(1), 1–22. Scholar
  19. Feldman, S. S., Wentzel, K. R., Weinberger, D. A., & Munson, J. A. (1990). Marital satisfaction of parents of preadolescent boys and its relationship to family and child functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 4(2), 213–234. Scholar
  20. Fishman, E. A., & Meyers, S. A. (2000). Marital satisfaction and child adjustment: direct and mediated pathways. Contemporary Family Therapy, 22(4), 437–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P., Friedel, J., & Paris, A. (2005). School engagement. In K. A. Moore & L. H. Lippman (Eds), What do children need to flourish? Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development (pp. 305–321). New York, NY: Springer Science.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 24, 59–109. Scholar
  23. Froyen, L. C., Skibbe, L. E., Bowles, R. P., Blow, A. J., & Gerde, H. K. (2013). Marital satisfaction, family emotional expressiveness, home learning environments, and children’s emergent literacy. Journal of Marriage and Family, 75(1), 42–55. Scholar
  24. Gagné, M. H., Shapka, J. D., & Law, D. M. (2014). Moving beyond grades: the social and emotional well-being of Chinese Canadians at school. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 5(4), 373–382. Scholar
  25. Gardner, W., Murphy, M., Childs, G., Kelleher, K., Pagano, M., Jellinek, M., McInerny, T. K., Wasserman, R. C., Nutting, P., & Chiappetta, L. (1999). The PSC-17: a brief pediatric symptom checklist with psychosocial problem subscales. A report from PROS and ASPN. Ambulatory Child Health, 5(3), 225–236.Google Scholar
  26. Gerard, J. M., Krishnakumar, A., & Buehler, C. (2006). Marital conflict, parent-child relations, and youth maladjustment. Journal of Family Issues, 27(7), 951–975. Scholar
  27. González, A., Paoloni, P., Donolo, D., & Rinaudo, C. (2015). Behavioral engagement and disaffection in school activities: exploring a model of motivational facilitators and performance outcomes. Anales de Psicología, 31(3), 869–878. Scholar
  28. Massachusetts General Hospital (n.d.). Pediatric Symptom Checklist 17 (PSC-17). Retrieved from
  29. Grych, J. H. (2002). Marital relationships and parenting. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: social conditions and applied parenting (pp. 203–225). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  30. Grych, J. H., Harold, G. T., & Miles, C. J. (2003). A prospective investigation of appraisals as mediators of the link between interparental conflict and child adjustment. Child Development, 74(4), 1176–1193. Scholar
  31. Gu, M. (2006). An analysis of the impact of traditional Chinese culture on Chinese education. Frontiers of Education in China, 1(2), 169–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harold, G. T., Elam, K. K., Lewis, G., Rice, F., & Thapar, A. (2012). Interparental conflict, parent psychopathology, hostile parenting, and child antisocial behavior: examining the role of maternal versus paternal influences using a novel genetically sensitive research design. Development and Psychopathology, 24(1), 1283–1295. Scholar
  33. Hill, N. E., & Craft, S. A. (2003). Parent–school involvement and school performance: mediated pathways among socioeconomically comparable African American and Euro-American families. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 74–83. Scholar
  34. Hill, N. E., & Taylor, L. C. (2004). Parental school involvement and children’s academic achievement pragmatics and issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(4), 161–164. Scholar
  35. Holden, G. W. (2010). Parenting: a dynamic perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
  36. Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural equation modelling: guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6, 53–60.Google Scholar
  37. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6, 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Izzo, C. V., Weissberg, R. P., Kasprow, W. J., & Fendrich, M. (1999). A longitudinal assessment of teacher perceptions of parent involvement in children's education and school performance. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27(6), 817–839.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jellinek, M. S., Murphy, J. M., Robinson, J., Feins, A., Lamb, S., & Fenton, T. (1988). Pediatric symptom checklist: screening school-age children for psychosocial dysfunction. The Journal of Pediatrics, 112, 201–209.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Jeynes, W. H. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school student academic achievement. Urban Education, 40(3), 237–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jeynes, W. H. (2007). The relationship between parental involvement and urban secondary school student academic achievement: a meta-analysis. Urban Education, 42(1), 82–110. Scholar
  42. Karney, B. R., Bradbury, T. N., Fincham, F. D., & Sullivan, K. T. (1994). The role of negative affectivity in the association between attributions and marital satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 413–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Katz, L. F., & Gottman, J. M. (1996). Spillover effects of marital conflict: in search of parenting and coparenting mechanisms. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 74, 57–76. Scholar
  44. Kenny, D. A., Kaniskan, B., & McCoach, D. B. (2015). The performance of RMSEA in models with small degrees of freedom. Sociological Methods & Research, 44(3), 486–507. Scholar
  45. Kim, S., & Fong, V. L. (2013). How parents help children with homework in China: narratives across the life span. Asia Pacific Education Review, 14(4), 581–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kung, H., & Lee, C. (2016). Multidimensionality of parental involvement and children’s mathematics achievement in Taiwan: mediating effect of math self-efficacy. Learning and Individual Differences, 47, 266–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kohout, F. J., Berkman, L. F., Evans, D. A., & Cornoni-Huntley, J. (1993). Two shorter forms of the CES-D depression symptoms index. Journal of Aging and Health, 5, 179–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Krishnakumar, A., & Buehler, C. (2000). Interparental conflict and parenting behaviors: a meta‐analytic review. Family Relations, 49(1), 25–44. Scholar
  49. Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B., Monahan, P. O., & Löwe, B. (2007). Anxiety disorders in primary care: prevalence, impairment, comorbidity, and detection. Annals of Internal Medicine, 146, 317–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kwok, S. Y. C. L., Cheng, L., Chow, B. W. Y., & Ling, C. C. Y. (2015). The spillover effect of parenting on marital satisfaction among Chinese mothers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(3), 772–783. Scholar
  51. Lam, S. F. (1996). How the family influences children's academic achievement. New York, NY: Garland.Google Scholar
  52. Lam, B. H., & Yan, H. F. (2011). Beginning teachers’ job satisfaction: the impact of school-based factors. Teacher Development, 15(3), 333–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lee, C. T., Beckert, T. E., Wu, C. I., & Kuan, P. Y. (2011). The impact of marital discord of parents on Taiwanese adolescents’ academic achievement: the mediating and moderating effect of maternal parenting practice. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 42(6), 827–XV.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Leinonen, J. A., Solantaus, T. S., & Punamäki, R.-L. (2003). Parental mental health and children’s adjustment: the quality of marital interaction and parenting as mediating factors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(2), 227–241. Scholar
  55. Li, Y., & Lerner, R. M. (2011). Trajectories of school engagement during adolescence: implications for grades, depression, delinquency, and substance use. Developmental Psychology, 47(1), 233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Linville, D., Chronister, K., Tom, D., Todahl, J., Miller, J., Shaw, D., Gardner, F., & Wilson, M. (2010). A longitudinal analysis of parenting practices, couple satisfaction, and child behavior problems. Journal of Marital Family Therapy, 36(2), 244–255. Scholar
  57. Lu, L., & Lin, Y. Y. (1998). Family roles and happiness in adulthood. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 195–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Malin, J. L., Cabrera, N. J., Karberg, E., & Taschman, K. (2016). A family systems approach to examining young children’s social development. In L. Balter & C. S. Tamis-LeMonda (Eds), Child psychology: a handbook of contemporary issues. 3rd Ed. (pp. 355–377). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  59. Mapp, K. L., Johnson, V. R., Strickland, C. S., & Meza, C. (2008). High school family centers: transformative spaces linking schools and families in support of student learning. Marriage & Family Review, 43(3–4), 338–368. Scholar
  60. McHale, J. P., Kuersten-Hogan, R., & Rao, N. (2004). Growing points for coparenting theory and research. Journal of Adult Development, 11(3), 221–234. Scholar
  61. Merrifield, K. A., & Gamble, W. C. (2013). Associations among marital qualities, supportive and undermining coparenting, and parenting self-efficacy: testing spillover and stress-buffering processes. Journal of Family Issues, 34(4), 510–533. Scholar
  62. Miller, W. C., Anton, H. A., & Townson, A. F. (2008). Measurement properties of the CESD scale among individuals with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord, 46, 287–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Minuchin, S. (1974). Families & family therapy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Mo, Y., & Singh, K. (2008). Parents’ relationships and involvement: effects on students’ school engagement and performance. RMLE Online, 31(10), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Morrill, M. I., Hines, D. A., Mahmood, S., & Córdova, J. (2010). Pathways between marriage and parenting for wives and husbands: the role of coparenting. Family Process, 49(1), 59–73. Scholar
  66. Nangle, S. M., Kelley, M. L., Fals-Stewart, W., & Levant, R. F. (2003). Work and family variables as related to paternal engagement, responsibility, and accessibility in dual-earner couples with young children. Fathering: A Journal of Theory, Research, and Practice about Men as Fathers, 1(1), 71–90. Scholar
  67. Norton, R. (1983). Measuring marital quality: a critical look at the dependent vaiable. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 45, 141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. O'Brien, M. (2005). Studying individual and family development: linking theory and research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67(4), 880–890. Scholar
  69. Oyserman, D., Brickman, D., & Rhodes, M. (2007). School success, possible selves, and parent school involvement. Family Relations, 56(5), 479–489. Scholar
  70. Parke, R. D. (2002). Fathers and families. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Volume 3. Being and becoming a parent. 2nd Edn. (pp. 27–73). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  71. Pedro, M. F., Ribeiro, T., & Shelton, K. H. (2012). Marital satisfaction and partners’ parenting practices: the mediating role of coparenting behavior. Journal of Family Psychology, 26(4), 509–522. Scholar
  72. Pomerantz, E. M., Moorman, E. A., & Litwack, S. D. (2007). The how, whom, and why of parents’ involvement in children’s academic lives: more is not always better. Review of Educational Research, 77(3), 373–410. Scholar
  73. Powell-Smith, K. A., Shinn, M. R., Stoner, G., & Good, R. H. (2000). Parent tutoring in reading using literature and curriculum materials: impact on student reading achievement. School Psychology Review, 29(1), 5–27.Google Scholar
  74. Reyes, M. R., Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., White, M., & Salovey, P. (2012). Classroom emotional climate, student engagement, and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(3), 700–712. Scholar
  75. Roth, P. L. (1994). Missing data: a conceptual review for applied psychologists. Personnel Psychology, 47, 537–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rothbaum, F., Morelli, G., Pott, M., & Liu-Constant, Y. (2000). Immigrant-Chinese and Euro-American parents’ physical closeness with young children: themes of family relatedness. Journal of Family Psychology, 14, 334–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Salili, F., Zhou, H., & Hoosain, R. (2003). Adolescent education in Hong Kong and Mainland China: effects of culture and context of learning on Chinese adolescents. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds), Adolescence and education, Vol. III: international perspectives on adolescence (pp. 277–302). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.Google Scholar
  78. Schumm, W. R., Paff-Bergen, L. A., Hatch, R. C., Obiorah, F. C., Copeland, J. M., Meens, L. D., & Bugaighis, M. A. (1986). Concurrent and discriminant validity of the Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 381–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Seginer, R. (2006). Parents’ educational involvement: a developmental ecology perspective. Parenting: Science and Practice, 6(1), 1–48. Scholar
  80. Shek, D. T. (1998). Linkage between marital quality and parent-child relationship: a longitudinal study in the Chinese culture. Journal of Family Issues, 19(6), 687–704. Scholar
  81. Shek, D. T. (2000). Parental marital quality and well-being, parent-child relational quality, and Chinese adolescent adjustment. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 28(2), 147–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shelton, K. H., & Harold, G. T. (2008). Interparental conflict, negative parenting, and children’s adjustment: bridging links between parents’ depression and children’s psychological distress. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(5), 712–724. Scholar
  83. Shoshani, A., Nakash, O., Zubida, H., & Harper, R. A. (2016). School engagement, acculturation, and mental health among migrant adolescents in Israel. School Psychology Quarterly, 31(2), 181–197. Scholar
  84. Singh, K., Chang, M., & Dika, S. (2010). Ethnicity, self-concept, and school belonging: effects on school engagement. Educational Research for Policy and Practice, 9(3), 159–175. Scholar
  85. Sirvani, H. (2007). The effect of teacher communication with parents on students’ mathematics achievement. American Secondary Education, 36(1), 31–46.Google Scholar
  86. Skinner, E. A., Wellborn, J. G., & Connell, J. P. (1990). What it takes to do well in school and whether I’ve got it: a process model of perceived control and children's engagement and achievement in school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 22–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Spanier, G. B. (1976). Measuring dyadic adjustment: new scales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 38, 15–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B., & Löwe, B. (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166, 1092–1097.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stiles, A. A., & Gudiño, O. G. (2018). Examining bidirectional associations between school engagement and mental health for youth in child welfare. School Mental Health, 10(4), 372–385. Scholar
  90. Tam, V. C., & Chan, R. M. (2009). Parental involvement in primary children’s homework in Hong Kong. School Community Journal, 19(2), 81–100.Google Scholar
  91. Upadyaya, K., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2013). Development of school engagement in association with academic success and well-being in varying social contexts. European Psychologist, 18(2), 136–147. Scholar
  92. Van Ryzin, M. J., Gravely, A. A., & Roseth, C. J. (2009). Autonomy, belongingness, and engagement in school as contributors to adolescent psychological well-being. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 1–12. Scholar
  93. Walker, J. M., Wilkins, A. S., Dallaire, J., Sandler, H. M., & Hoover-Dempsey, K. V. (2005). Parental involvement: model revision through scale developement. Elementary School Journal, 106, 85–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wang, M. T., & Holcombe, R. (2010). Adolescents’ perceptions of school environment, engagement, and academic achievement in middle school. American Educational Research Journal, 47(3), 633–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wang, M. T., & Peck, S. C. (2013). Adolescent educational success and mental health vary across school engagement profiles. Developmental Psychology, 49(7), 1266–1276. Scholar
  96. Wang, M. T., Selman, R. L., Dishion, T. J., & Stormshak, E. A. (2010). A Tobit regression analysis of the covariation between middle school students’ perceived school climate and behavioral problems. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(2), 274–286. Scholar
  97. Whitchurch, G. G., & Constantine, L. L. (2009). Systems theory. In P. Boss, W. J. Doherty, R. LaRossa, W. R. Schumm & S. K. Steinmetz (Eds.), Sourcebook of family theories and methods (pp. 325–355). Boston: Springer.Google Scholar
  98. Wong, R. S. M., Ho, F. K. W., Wong, W. H. S., Tung, K. T. S., Chow, C. W., Rao, N., Chan, K. L., & Ip, P. (2018). Parental involvement in primary school education: its relationship with children’s academic performance and psychosocial competence through engaging children with school. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27(5), 1544–1555. Scholar
  99. Xu, A., Zhang, J., & Xia, Y. R. (2007). Impacts of parents’ divorce on Chinese children: a model with academic performance as a mediator. Marriage & Family Review, 42(3), 91–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Education StudiesHong Kong Baptist UniversityHong Kong SARChina
  2. 2.City University of Hong KongHong Kong SARChina
  3. 3.Creative Secondary SchoolHong Kong SARChina
  4. 4.Department of Special Education & CounsellingThe Education University of Hong KongHong Kong SARChina

Personalised recommendations