Friend Support and the Parenting of Latina Adolescent Mothers: The Moderating Role of Maternal Age
- 7 Downloads
This study examined the role of maternal age in the relation between social support from friends and parenting adjustment in a sample of young Latina mothers and their 18-month-old children (N = 168).
Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested friend social support types (emotional, socializing, child care) as differential predictors of maternal behavior (sensitivity, cognitive growth-fostering, detachment) displayed during mother-child play interactions. To consider maternal development, the moderating role of maternal age on these associations was tested.
The relations between friend emotional and child care support and parenting were moderated by maternal age. Emotional support was related to the use of more growth-fostering parenting behaviors for older (≥19.5 years), but not for younger Latina mothers. Child care support from friends was related to the display of more detachment and less cognitive growth-fostering behaviors among the younger (≤18.7 years) mothers only. Immigrant mothers reported significantly less overall friend support and emotional support than mothers born in the mainland U.S.
The findings emphasize the importance of assessing the types of friend support as separate measures in an ecological context that takes into account mothers’ generational and developmental level.
KeywordsSocial support Parenting Adolescent mothers Latinas Maternal age
The research reported in this article was funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health under award number R01HD46554 to the second author. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. We thank the families who participated in the study, project staff and the students who worked on the project. This research was conducted in partial fulfilment of the first author’s M.A. degree at Kent State University.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Bámaca-Colbert, M. Y., Tilghman-Osborne, E. M., Calderón-López, S., & Moore, A. M. (2017). Perceptions of support from mothers, fathers, and friends: direct and indirect associations with the psychological adjustment of Mexican-origin girls. Journal of Latina/o Psychology, 5, 142–156. https://doi.org/10.1037/lat0000070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Collins, N. L., Dunkel-Schetter, C., Lobel, M., & Scrimshaw, S. C. (1993). Social support in pregnancy: psychosocial correlates of birth outcomes and postpartum depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1243–1258. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2063.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Contreras, J. M., Lόpez, I. R., Rivera-Mosquera, E. T., Raymond-Smith, L., & Rothstein, K. (1999). Social support and adjustment among Puerto Rican adolescent mothers: The moderating effect of acculturation. Journal of Family Psychology, 13, 228–243. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3220.127.116.11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Contreras, J. M., Mangelsdorf, S. C., Rhodes, J. E., Diener, M. L., & Brunson, L. (1999). Parent child interaction among Latina adolescent mothers: the role of family and social support. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 9, 417–439. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327795jra0904_3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Contreras, J. M., Narang, D., Ikhlas, M., Teichman, J., Contreras, J., Kerns, K., & Neal-Barnett, A. (2002). A conceptual model of the determinants of parenting among Latina adolescent mothers. Latino children and families in the United States: Current research and future directions (pp. 154–177). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.Google Scholar
- Crase, S. J., Hockaday, C., & McCarville, P. C. (2007). Brief report: perceptions of positive and negative support: do they differ for pregnant/parenting adolescents and nonpregnant, nonparenting adolescents? Journal of Adolescence, 30, 505–512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2006.11.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Crnic, K., Greenberg, M., & Boukydis, C. (1987). Maternal stress, social support, and coping: Influences on early mother-child relationship. Research on support for parents and infants in the postnatal period (pp. 25–40). NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
- Devereux, P. G., Weigel, D. J., Ballard-Reisch, D., Leigh, G., & Cahoon, K. L. (2009). Immediate and longer-term connection between support and stress in pregnant/parenting and non-pregnant/non-parenting adolescents. Child Adolescent Social Work Journal, 26, 431–446. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10560-009-0175-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- de Guzman, M. R. T., Jung, E., & Anh Do, K. (2012). Perceived social support networks and prosocial outcomes among Latino/a youth in the United States. Revista Interamericana de Psicología, 46, 413–424.Google Scholar
- Grau, J., Wilson, K., Weller, E., Castellanos, P., Duran, P., Maholmes, V., & King, R. B. (2012). Adolescent parenting. The Oxford Handbook of Poverty and Child Development. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Grau, J. M., Duran, P. A., Castellanos, P., Smith, E., Silberman, S. G., & Wood, L. E. (2015). Developmental outcomes of toddlers of young Latina mothers: cultural, family and parenting factors. Infant Behavior and Development, 41, 113–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2015.08.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hamilton, B. E., Martin, J. A., Osterman, M. J. K., Curtin, S. C., & Matthews, T. J. (2015). Births: Final data for 2014. National Vital Statistics Reports, 64. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
- Hoffman, S. D., & Maynard, R. A. (2008). The costs of adolescent childbearing. In S. D. Hoffman. & R. A. Maynard (Eds), Kids having kids: Economic costs and social consequences of teen pregnancy. 2nd ed. (pp. 359–402). Washington D.C: The Urban Inst.Google Scholar
- Isabella, R. A. (1993). Origins of attachment: maternal behavior across the first year. Child Development, 64, 605–621. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1993.tb02931.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jahromi, L. B., Guimond, A. B., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Updegraff, K. A., & Toomey, R. B. (2014). Family context, Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ parenting knowledge, and children’s subsequent developmental outcomes. Child Development, 85, 593–609. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12160.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- López, M., & Cooper, L. (2011). Social Support Measures Review. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Latino Child and Family Research. http://www.first5la.org/files/SSMS_LopezCooper_LiteratureReviewandTable_02212011.pdf.
- Roisman, G. I., Newman, D. A., Fraley, R. C., Haltigan, J. D., Groh, A. M., & Haydon, K. C. (2012). Distinguishing differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress: recommendations for evaluating interaction effects. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 389–409. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579412000065.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Suarez-Orozco, C., & Suarez-Orozco, M. (1995). Transformations: Immigration, family life, and achievement motivation among Latino adolescents. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Thompson, R. A., Flood, M. F., & Goodvin, R. (2006). Social support and developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti. & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Risk, disorder, and adaptation. 2nd Ed. (pp. 1–37). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Vol. 3.Google Scholar
- Uchino, B. N. (2009). Understanding the links between social support and physical health: a life-span perspective with emphasis on the separability of perceived and received support. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 236–255. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01122.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Unger, D., & Wandersman, L. (1985). Social support and adolescent mothers: Action research contributions to theory and application. Journal of Social Issues, 41, 29–45. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1985.tb01115.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- University of Chicago Family Planning and Contraceptive Research, (2011). Relationships between adolescent mothers and their peers during the transition to parenthood. http://familyplanning.uchicago.edu/research/studies-by-topic/postpartum-abcs/index.shtml.
- Voight, J. D., Hans, S. L., & Bernstein, V. J. (1996). Support networks of adolescent mothers: Effects on parenting experience and behavior. Infant Mental Health Journal, 17, 58–73. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0355(199621)17:1<58::AID-IMHJ5>3.0.CO;2-Y.